Programas de intervenções comportamentais e de desenvolvimento intensivas precoces para crianças com TEA: uma revisão de literatura

Ana Carolina Wolff Mota, Mauro Luis Vieira, Adriano Henrique Nuernberg

Resumo


Indivíduos diagnosticados com Transtorno do Espectro do Autismo (TEA) apresentam comprometimento qualitativo para interagir socialmente de forma recíproca, para discriminar o sentido social das experiências com outros e, por conseguinte, prejuízo significativo no processo de desenvolvimento de habilidades sociocomunicativas. Sinais de autismo podem ser identificados desde o primeiro ano de vida, o que representa possibilidade de iniciar intervenção precoce – sendo esta um importante preditor na recuperação funcional desse transtorno do neurodesenvolvimento. O objetivo do presente estudo é revisar, na literatura científica, procedimentos de intervenção comportamentais e de desenvolvimento intensivas e precoce, em crianças diagnosticadas com TEA, que revelem evidência de resultados. Foram pesquisadas cinco bases de dados internacionais, nas áreas de saúde e educação, como fontes da busca, quais sejam: a) Web of Science; b) Scopus; c) PsycInfo; d) Eric; e, e) BVS. A partir disso, foram selecionados 95 artigos a partir dos critérios de inclusão adotados e identificou-se que as principais áreas de desenvolvimento-alvos das intervenções são habilidades de comunicação, interação social e cognição; o tempo médio pode variar, contudo, a recomendação é de que haja intensidade de, no mínimo, 3 horas por dia; os contextos de intervenção variam e envolvem predominantemente ambientes clínicos ou domésticos, cujos agentes de intervenção são técnicos e pais. Quanto aos ingredientes ativos nos efeitos das intervenções, quanto mais nova a criança e mais alto for o QI, maior a probabilidade de desfechos favoráveis na intervenção; em relação aos principais indicadores de qualidade, os programas são avaliados a partir de ganhos nas habilidades cognitivas, de linguagem, adaptativas e sociais. Tais resultados podem ser convertidas em diretrizes na implementação de programas de intervenção precoce para crianças com autismo.


Palavras-chave


Autismo; Intervenção Precoce; Programas de Intervenção

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Referências


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