Titanium dioxide nanoparticles promote histopathological and genotoxic effects in Danio rerio after acute and chronic exposures
Keywords:Intestine, Liver, Micronucleus test, Nanotoxicology, Zebrafish
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are among the most used nanomaterials worldwide, but studies evaluating its genotoxicity and histopathological effects are scarce, dealing with short exposure times and low concentrations for human use. The aim was to evaluate TiO2-NPs genotoxicity and histological alterations in the intestine and liver of zebrafish after exposure to human consumption compatible concentrations. Fishes were acutely (96 hours) and chronically (30 days) exposed to 5.0, 20 and 40 mg L-1 of TiO2-NPs and later euthanized for organ and blood analysis through histological procedures and the micronucleus test, respectively. An increase in the thickness of intestinal villi was observed after acute and chronic exposure in the higher concentrations. The liver showed an increase in vacuolated hepatocytes after both exposures, besides an increase in hepatocytes with peripheral nucleus. Genotoxicity was only observed after chronic exposure, demonstrated by the increase in micronucleus and cell buddings. These findings indicate that TiO2-NPs cause histopathological damage even in acute exposures, as the intestine serves as a barrier for NPs and the liver is an organ that accumulates Ti. Genotoxicity was possibly mediated by reactive oxygen species through chronic inflammation, leading to tissue damage and carcinogenesis in longer exposures that represents human exposure time.
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Ethical Guidelines for Journal Publication
The Ciência e Natura journal is committed to ensuring ethics in publication and quality of articles.
Conformance to standards of ethical behavior is therefore expected of all parties involved: Authors, Editors, Reviewers, and the Publisher.
Authors: Authors should present an objective discussion of the significance of research work as well as sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the experiments. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable. Review Articles should also be objective, comprehensive, and accurate accounts of the state of the art. The Authors should ensure that their work is entirely original works, and if the work and/or words of others have been used, this has been appropriately acknowledged. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Authors should not submit articles describing essentially the same research to more than one journal. The corresponding Author should ensure that there is a full consensus of all Co-authors in approving the final version of the paper and its submission for publication.
Editors: Editors should evaluate manuscripts exclusively on the basis of their academic merit. An Editor must not use unpublished information in the editor's own research without the express written consent of the Author. Editors should take reasonable responsive measures when ethical complaints have been presented concerning a submitted manuscript or published paper.
Reviewers: Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should be conducted objectively, and observations should be formulated clearly with supporting arguments, so that Authors can use them for improving the paper. Any selected Reviewer who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the Editor and excuse himself from the review process. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.