Ciência e Natura 2021-12-06T21:24:36-03:00 Prof. Hans Rogério Zimermann Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">The <strong>Ciência e Natura</strong> Journal was created in 1979 to meet the needs of researchers from the different areas of the Exact and Natural Sciences Center (CCNE), to publish their work, to disclose them and to maintain interchange with other publications.</p> Cacti of Santa Maria – RS, Brazil 2021-10-26T13:14:00-03:00 Igor Wassiljew Moia Guilherme Moreira da Silva Liliana Essi <p>A floristic survey of the Cactaceae family was carried out in the municipality of Santa Maria, Brazil, which is localized in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state. The study was conducted between August 2017 and November 2018, during which time 14 species were recorded. Five species are on the endangered species list of Rio Grande do Sul. The threatened species are <em>Echinopsis oxygona</em> (Link) Zucc. Ex. Pfeiff. &amp; Otto, <em>Parodia horstii</em> (F. Ritter) N.P. Taylor, <em>Parodia glaucina</em> (F. Ritter), Hofacker &amp; M. Machado, <em>Parodia linkii</em> (Lehm.), R. Kiesling, and <em>Parodia ottonis</em> (Lehm.) N. P. Taylor. This paper presents a complete list of the species with reference to conservation status. <strong><em></em></strong></p> 2021-03-10T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Water availability and seasonality affect phytomass production and photosynthetic pigments of Aloysia citrodora Paláu 2021-12-06T18:43:27-03:00 Leonardo Antonio Thiesen Marcos Vinícius Marques Pinheiro Braulio Otomar Caron Ezequiel Holz Bruna Stringari Altissimo Evandro Holz Denise Schmidt <p>Vegetative growth can be affected by different environmental factors. The objective of this work was to evaluate phytomass production and photosynthetic pigments of Aloysia citrodora plants submitted to different irrigation levels and seasons. The experiment was carried out in a protected environment from August 2015 to March 2017, in an experimental randomized blocks design, 4x4 factorial scheme, with four blocks with four plants each. The irrigation levels tested were 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the field capacity, in the four seasons of the year (autumn, winter, spring and summer). Plant height, fresh and dry mass of branches, fresh and dry mass of leaves, leaf area and photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids) were evaluated. It was observed that water availability and seasons influence phytomass production as well as the photosynthetic pigment analyzes. Low irrigation levels and cultivation during autumn and winter adversely affect vegetative growth. Furthermore, our results indicate that for higher phytomass production, it is recommended to cultivate Aloysia citrodora during spring and summer under irrigation levels of 75% and 100% of field capacity. Spring season promotes higher content of photosynthetic pigments. This study will open new avenues and perspectives to elucidate possible changes in secondary metabolites of Aloysia citrodora, a medicinal plant, in the presence of changes in the growing seasons and different stress conditions, including water stress.</p> 2021-10-05T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Improving knowledge on Viviania linostigma, a threatened species from southern Brazil 2021-10-26T13:20:42-03:00 Juliana Schaefer Cleusa Vogel Ely Ilsi Iob Boldrini Sérgio Augusto de Loreto Bordignon <p><em>Viviania linostigma</em> is restricted to the Brazilian territory, considered a threatened and endemic species of a small region in the Araucaria Forest. This species has been recorded only in southeast Santa Catarina State, and the extreme northeast of Rio Grande do Sul State, in Brazil. Here, we report four new records of <em>V. linostigma </em>for Rio Grande do Sul, expanding its known distribution by 262 km to the south and improving knowledge about the conservation status of the species. These novelties reinforce that species conservation requires more investment in fieldwork, especially in little sampled regions.</p> 2021-03-10T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Brassicaceae Burnett in the municipality of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil 2021-10-26T13:26:47-03:00 Isabel Costa Borges Liliana Essi <p>Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) includes invasive species as well as widely cultivated horticultural species. In Santa Maria, Cruciferae species usually occur in environments that have undergone urbanization such as sidewalks, roadsides, walls, near energy poles, etc. The last listing of species of this family in the area was performed by Romeu Beltrão in 1962 and supplemented in 1965. The objective of the current study was to update the number of records of Brassicaceae species that occur in the municipality of Santa Maria, RS, as well as to provide keys for the identification for native and naturalized genera and species. Bibliographic surveys, field collections, herbarium material analysis and data from databases of <em>speciesLink</em> and Flora of Brazil 2020 were carried out, as well as complementary collections from August 2018 to April 2019. The species found were photographed and identified based on the existing literature. Identification keys for genera and species, as well as illustrations, were prepared. All genera had only one representative species in Santa Maria with the exception of <em>Lepidium,</em> which presented three species. There was an addition of three species and one genus in relation to the last survey carried out.</p> 2021-03-08T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Morphology, anatomy and leaf ultrastructure of Froelichia tomentosa (Mart.) Moq. (Amaranthaceae) - a critically endangered species in Brazil 2021-10-26T13:29:37-03:00 Aline Viana Elisete Maria de Freitas Shirley Martins Silva <p>In Brazil, <em>Froelichia tomentosa </em>(Mart.) Moq. has records of occurrence in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) and Bahia, however, in the former there are indications that its populations are extinct. In the RS, the records are restricted to the region of sandy- fields. In this region, biodiversity has been threatened by advances in agriculture and forestry that intensified in the sandy patch process. Therefore, this work aimed to describe the morphoanatomy and ultrastructure of the leaf blade in <em>Froelichia tomentosa</em>, seeking to correlate leaf characteristics to the environmental conditions. Individuals from different populations in the sand- fields (Pampa biome) were sampled. Leaf blade analyzes were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (MET) and optical microscopy (MO). The following anatomical features were verified: epidermis with trichomes and stomata in the adaxial and abaxial surface, compact mesophyll, aquiferous hypodermis, Kranz anatomy, and numerous plastoglobules and peroxisomes. The presence of these characters may be related to the adaptation of this species to environment. In addition, we highlight the necessity to create conservation units in the sand-fields region, in order to preserve species as well as that of the present study.</p> 2021-03-08T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Seed Germination and seedling formation of Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. at different temperatures and substrates 2021-10-26T13:31:48-03:00 Luciana Pinto Paim Eduarda Demari Avrella Monique Caumo Luciano Silva Alves Gabriel Wathier Almeida Kétlin Fernanda Rodrigues Lucélia Hoehne Eduardo Miranda Ethur Elisete Maria de Freitas Claudimar Sidnei Fior <p><em>Bromelia antiacantha</em> Bertol. is a native species of Brazil with food, medicinal, industrial and forest restoration potential. The objective of this study was to test different substrates and temperatures in the germination and seedling formation of <em>B. antiacantha</em>. Seeds obtained from fruits collected in situ from three localities, one in Paverama/RS and two in Taquari/RS, were washed in running water and homogenized in a single batch. After drying, the seeds were disinfested and seeded in medium sand and germibox paper, and exposed to constant temperatures of 25 and 30ºC. Firstly, the water content of the seeds were determined and, after installation of the experiment, the percentage of germination (G) and seedlings formed (SF), germination mean time (MTG) and seedling formation mean time (MTS), germination rate index (GRI) and seedling formation rate index (SRI) were calculated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with 4 replicates of 50 seeds. The water content and the weight of one thousand seeds corresponded to 17.02% and 27.09 g, respectively. The paper was superior to sand, with an average of 87% of germinated seeds, as well as a percentage of 86.25% of normal seedlings formed. Regarding the temperature, at 25 ºC, the seeds showed lower MTG and MTS and higher GRI and SRI. <em>B. antiacantha</em> seeds showed superior germination and initial seedling formation when sown on paper substrates and at 25 °C.</p> 2021-03-07T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Contribution to the identification of the species Myrcia hatschbachii D. Legrand (Myrtaceae): anatomical and histochemical analyses 2021-12-06T15:16:59-03:00 Larissa Junqueira Gatto Vanessa Barbosa Bobek Jane Manfron Budel Natasha Tiemi Fabri Josiane de Fatima Gaspari Dias Obdulio Gomes Miguel Marilis Dallarmi Miguel <p>The genus <em>Myrcia</em> is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes. The plants used in folk medicine require morphological and anatomical references to attest to its authenticity. This is the first report of the microscopic study of <em>Myrcia hatschbachii</em>. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to describe the anatomical characteristics, in order to contribute to the species' identification. For anatomical and surface analyses free-hand sections were prepared and observed using optical microscopy, simultaneously some materials were processed and observed under scanning electron microscopy. In addition, histochemical tests were performed. The anatomical features described here correspond with previously reported features found in other species of the genus <em>Myrcia</em>. Furthermore, the following anatomical markers were observed in <em>Myrcia hatschbachii</em>: druses in the spongy parenchyma, concave-convex midrib, heart-shaped petiole, oval-shaped stem, C-shaped vascular bundle in the midrib and open arc shape with invaginated ends in the petiole; phenolic compounds in the phloem and lignified cells in the pith. The results of anatomical and histochemical analyses provide micromorphological and microchemical features that can help in the taxonomy and proper identification of the species.</p> 2021-08-04T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Application of the Peltier-Seebeck effect for termical-electrical energy conversion as source for mobile device charging 2021-10-21T15:11:11-03:00 Lucas de Goes Muniz Rita de Cássia Mota This work states a viable option, using low-cost components and renewable energy, of building a phone charger with main source of energy from the difference of temperature between a human body and a heat sink, free of wires and/or external connectors. Using the Peltier-Seeback effect, to produce a potential difference from the broker junction in different heats, stabilizing and amplifying this with a circuit composed by simple components and of easy access, getting as the circuit output the average values of 5,02 V and 1.1A Such values may be taken in consideration as enough to recharge a smartphone battery, which the output values vary between 3.3V-5V and 0.7A-2A. This way, this shown study demonstrates the application of a thermal-physical effect on a common accessory of daily use, using as intermission the basic concept of engineering in what it refers to solving problems. Therefore, on electric energy shortage situations in remote places without electricity, there will be new search fronts, academic or not, that might be used as a broad way to allow the energy supply in home appliances of high tension, bringing energy supply to remote areas of any origin and contributing to the development of research on this area. 2021-02-01T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Efeitos da urina de vaca no manejo agroecológico de insetos e da vassoura-de-bruxa (Moniliophtora perniciosa Stahel Aime & Phillips-Mora) do cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao L.) 2021-10-21T15:11:07-03:00 José Eduardo Santos Mamédio Uberson Boaretto Rossa Frederico Fonseca da Silva Wilson Sacchi Peternella Vanderlei Bett A Vassoura-de-bruxa (<em>Moniliophtora perniciosa</em> Stahel Aime &amp; Phillips-Mora) foi constatada na Bahia pela primeira vez em 1989 nas áreas de cultivo de cacau, e imediatamente tornou-se a mais importante doença dessa cultura, responsável por perdas acentuadas de produção, principalmente pelo enfraquecimento das plantas e a redução da área foliar, causando inclusive a morte da planta adulta. Após vários anos de queda na produção de cacau na região Sul da Bahia, os produtores vêm renovando as esperanças na lavoura ao adotar práticas que favorecem o aumento da produtividade, como renovação do stand por meio de material genético autocompatível e com maior resistência a essa doença, melhorando, assim, o manejo cultural do cacaueiro em sistemas agroflorestais. Dentro de um cultivo convencional, para combater essa doença, os agricultores têm recorrido a pesticidas. Entretanto, o seu uso indiscriminado tem levado à contaminação de trabalhadores e do ambiente, que está cada vez mais em desequilíbrio e criando resistência a esse fungo. Métodos alternativos no controle desta doença, como a pulverização com urina de vaca, já estão sendo testados pelos próprios produtores, que já percebem melhorias nos seus cultivos e na própria qualidade de vida, principalmente por serem produtos alternativos, naturais, baratos e de fácil acesso. Neste estudo, avaliou-se o uso da urina de vaca em diferentes concentrações, utilizando 5 tratamentos com 4 repetições cada, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os resultados demonstraram que a urina de vaca em lactação, nas concentrações de 0,5%, 1,0% e 1,5%, foi tão eficiente quanto o pesticida utilizado como referência no experimento, simulando o tratamento convencional, não sendo observadas diferenças significantes em seus resultados de acordo com o teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. 2021-02-01T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Chemical characterization, toxicity, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Hymenaea courbaril L. and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels 2021-10-21T15:11:07-03:00 Gustavo Oliveira Everton Ana Patrícia Matos Pereira Paulo Victor Serra Rosa Nilton Silva Costa Mafra Paulo Sérgio Santos Júnior Franscristhiany Silva Souza Caritas de Jesus Silva Mendonça Fernando Carvalho Silva Paulo Roberto Barros Gomes Victor Elias Mouchrek Filho <p>This study evaluated the antimicrobial, antioxidant and toxicity activity of essential oils (EOs) of Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril bark and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels leaves. The EOs were extracted by hydrodistillation and chemically characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The ABTS and DPPH assay were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. For the toxicity assay, lethality was evaluated against Artemia salina Leach. For the antimicrobial assay, the method of Disc Diffusion and Dilution in Broth was applied to obtain the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal. The major constituent of the EO of H. courbaril was β-ocimene (23.33%) and the EO of S. cumini was isocaryophyllene (18.01%). Both OE showed relevant antioxidant activity and low toxicity against Artemia salina. The EOs showed bactericidal activity against E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Salmonella sp., B. cereus and P. mirabilis. The results obtained are encouraged by the potential use of the OE's studied in the control and fight of pathogenic microorganisms.</p> 2021-03-01T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Juice processing potential of different grape cultivars under conditions in southern Brazil 2021-10-21T15:11:07-03:00 Angelica Bender André Luiz Kulkamp de Souza Marcelo Barbosa Malgarim Vinicius Caliari Pedro Luís Panisson Kaltbach Lemos Vagner Brasil Costa <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">The objective of this study was to evaluate the juice quality of 11 grape cultivars over three productive cycles, aiming to identify which cultivars are indicated to complement the varietal matrix and allow the extension of the harvest period in the region of Vale do Rio do Peixe - SC. The grapes used to elaborate the juices were: BRS Rúbea (RUB), BRS Cora (COR); BRS Violet (VIO); BRS Carmen (CAR), BRS Magna (MAG), Bordô (BOR), Isabel (ISA), Isabel Precoce (IP), Concord (CON), Concord Clone 30 (C30) and SCS 421 Paulina (SCSP), produced in the EPAGRI experimental station vineyard, in Videira-SC. The physical-chemical variables analyzed showed statistically significant differences for the different cultivars. From the analysis of main components performed, it was possible to observe the noticeable differences between the levels of this factor and the correlations between the parameters. ISA and IP showed lower levels of anthocyanins and color, differing from VIO and MAG. CON and C30 stood out for their high acidity and low soluble solids content. BOR, SCSP and RUB presented juices with intense coloring, high content of bioactive compounds, nevertheless they presented lower levels of soluble solids and a higher acidity, while COR presented slightly higher contents for total soluble solids. The cultivars that brought together the greatest number of favorable characteristics (physical-chemical, sensory and extension of the harvest dates) for the juice elaboration in the studied region, proving favorable to complement the productive matrix composed of ISA and BOR, were VIO, MAG, IP, COR and CAR.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Chemical profile, stability and fungicide activity of oil-in-water nanoemulsion (O / A) incorporated with Ba-har essential oil 2021-10-21T15:11:07-03:00 Maria Giullia Alves Carneiro Felizardo Ana Patrícia Matos Pereira Thaylanna Pinto de Lima Thayane Lopes de Sousa Cassiano Vasques Frota Guterres João Pedro Mesquita Oliveira Thércia Gabrielle Teixeira Martins Victor Elias Mouchrek Filho Gustavo Oliveira Everton <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">The increase in strains resistant to conventional antifungals means that there is a need for studies related to alternative therapeutic practices, such as medicinal plants. This study aims to evaluate the chemical profile and fungicidal activity of the nanoemulsion of the essential oil obtained from <em>Ba-har</em> (Syrian pepper). The phytochemical profile of the plant material was performed based on the methodology of Matos (2009). For extraction of essential oil, 100g of plant material was used, with the isolation of essential oil by the hydrodistillation technique conducted at 100 °C / 3h. To quantify the total phenolics present in the OE, the Folin-Ciocalteu method was used. For the total flavonoids, the AlCl<sub>3</sub> complexation method was used. The oil-in-water nanoemulsion was formulated by the low-energy method of phase inversion using essential oil, non-ionic surfactant and water, and the obtained nanoemulsion was subjected to thermodynamic stability tests. The essential oils and stable nanoemulsions were subjected to evaluation of the fungicidal action against strains of <em>Aspergillus niger</em> (ATCC 6275), <em>Colletotrichum gloeosporioides</em> (ATCC 96723) and <em>Penicilium chrysogenum</em> (ATCC 10106). The fungicidal activity was performed according to CLSI (2020) using the Broth Dilution method to obtain the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and sowing on agar for Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (CFM). The results obtained for the total phenolic content were quantified at 348.3 mg EAT g<sup>-1</sup> and 346.21 mg EQ g<sup>-1</sup> for flavonoids. <em>Ba-har</em> essential oil was more efficient in inhibiting <em>A. niger</em>, as it presented the lowest MIC (200 µg mL<sup>-1</sup>), followed by <em>P. chrysogenum</em> (250 µg mL<sup>-1</sup>) and later by <em>C. gloeosporioides</em> (300 µg mL<sup>-1</sup>). The identification of the secondary metabolites present in <em>Ba-har</em> was quite considerable, since they are responsible for the biological properties, thus inspiring the continuity of studies related to its biological activities. As for the total phenolic content and flavonoids present in the essential oil, they indicated the important antioxidant potential. The fungicidal potential of <em>Ba-har</em> oil showed strong inhibition and mortality, however the nanoemulsion product with the essential oil incorporated showed a more efficient action against the pathogenic fungi tested,<em></em></p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Flavonoids isolated from Sida santaremnensis H. Monteiro (“Guanxuma”) and evaluation of biological activities 2021-10-21T15:11:08-03:00 Ana Emilia Formiga Marques Talissa Mozzini Monteiro Claudio Roberto Bezerra dos Santos Márcia Regina Piuzevan Maria de Fátima Vanderlei de Souza Gabriele Taumaturgo Mororó Michel Muálem de Moraes Alves Fernando Aécio de Amorim Carvalho Daniel Dias Rufino Arcanjo Juan Carlos Ramos Gonçalves Danielly Albuquerque da Costa <p class="41Textoresumoabstract"><strong>Introduction:</strong> <em>Sida santaremnensis</em> H. Monteiro (Malvaceae) is a plant popularly known as "vassourinha" or "guanxuma" that has been described as vasorelaxant, antiulcerogenic, antinociceptive and antiedematogenic. <strong>Objective:</strong> To contribute with the phytochemical and pharmacological profile of <em>Sida santaremnensis </em>through the isolation, purification and determination of chemical constituents of this plant, as well as through the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity and leishmanicidal effect of the isolated constituent in a greater amount. <strong>Methods:</strong> The isolation of substances from the plant herein studied was performed with column chromatographic and analytical thin-layer methods and structural determination made by spectroscopic methods, such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Hydrogen and Carbon 13, and comparisons with data from the literature. To assess pharmacological activities, cell viability tests, determination of nitric oxide levels, leishmanicidal activity, among others, were performed. <strong>Results: </strong>Two flavonoids from <em>S. santaremnensis</em> were obtained, kaempferol (S-1) and kaepferol 3-O-β-D-glycosyl-6’’-α-L-rhamnoside (S-2), the latter in a greater amount.<strong> </strong>The evaluation of the antitumor activity of the glycosylated flavonoid demonstrated that it does not present hemolytic activity against the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line (HL-60), and that it presented weak leishmanicidal activity. The immunopharmacological evaluation of kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-6’’-α-L-rhamnoside revealed that it presents a possible anti-inflammatory action related to the inhibition of the production of nitrite by LPS-stimulated macrophages. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> These data demonstrate that kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-6’’-α-L-rhamnoside has low toxicity, in addition to antileishmania, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, which makes it a therapeutic potential for infectious and inflammatory diseases mediated by macrophages.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Green coffee oil cream (Coffea arabica L.): healing potential of skin wounds of wistar rats 2021-10-21T15:11:08-03:00 Hudson de Almeida Aline Barbosa Scarabelli Rafael Fregnan Silvério Miller Pereira Palhão Júlia Azevedo de Almeida Renato Silveira Vilas Boas Filho Nelma Mello Silva Oliveira Evelise Aline Soares Bethânia Elias Costa Maria das Graças de Souza Carvalho Ciderléia Castro Lima Cloves Gomes de Carvalho Filho José Antonio Dias Garcia <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">Objective: To evaluate the effect of 10% cream of green coffee oil on skin Wounds in Wistar Rats. Materials and Methods: We used 36 Wistar Rats, randomly divided between 3 groups: Inert Group (I, n = 12), Wounds were cleaned and treated with cream without the active ingredient once a day; Green Coffee (CV, n = 12), Wounds were cleaned and treated with 10% green coffee cream once a day; Dexpanthenol (SD, n = 12), Wounds were cleaned and treated with 5% Dexpanthenol once a day. As lesions had been generated by 8mm drilling, the same have been treated topically every day. On the 3<sup>rd</sup> , 7<sup>th</sup> and 14<sup>th</sup> day after Surgery, four Animals / group were sacrificed, or a Fragment of skin around the Wound was collected and processed histologically. Results: Green coffee cream is a 10% stimulus in the Repair process, such as Wounds without signs of infection, and an increase in the number of mononuclear Cells and fibroblasts (p 0.05), good entanglement of collagen Fibers and less healing time presented to the other studied groups. Conclusion: 10% green coffee oil has Pharmacological potential in the healing of skin Wounds.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Phenolic compounds, antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity, and identification of phytochemicals present in Inga marginata Willd seeds 2021-12-01T14:10:36-03:00 Déborah Cristina Barcelos Flores Caroline Pagnossim Boeira Clarice Madalena Bueno Rolim Daniele Rubert Nogueira Librelotto Frederico Luiz Reis Liziane Maria Barassuol Morandini Ademir Farias Morel Claudia Severo da Rosa <p style="user-select: text;">Brazil has an invaluable source of plants and fruits rich in phenolic compounds important to health, some of which have yet to be discovered. <em style="user-select: text;">Inga marginata</em> Willd is a fruit that can be found throughout Brazil, and its seeds are rich in phenolic compounds and antimicrobial activity, thus making their extraction and characterization highly relevant. This study aimed to determine the total phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, antibacterial and antifungal activities, cytotoxicity evaluation, and characterize the phytochemical compounds present in the extract. The results indicated that extraction by agitation at 30 ºC obtained the highest yield of total phenolic compounds (48.23 mg GAE g<sup style="user-select: text;">-1</sup>), antioxidant capacity (40.34 mg TEAC g<sup style="user-select: text;">-1</sup>), and IC<sub style="user-select: text;">50</sub> (2.60 mg mL<sup style="user-select: text;">-1</sup>). The extracts at 30 and 60 ºC inhibited all microorganisms tested, and the temperature of 30 ºC acted as a bactericide and fungicide at low concentrations. Ten phytochemical compounds were found, mainly being antioxidants and antimicrobials. The cytotoxicity assays showed that <em style="user-select: text;">Inga </em><em style="user-select: text;">marginata </em>seeds do not present cellular cytotoxicity up to the concentration of 250 µg mL<sup style="user-select: text;">-1</sup>, maintaining cell viability above 90%.<strong style="user-select: text;"></strong></p> 2021-07-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Avaliação dos lenhos carbonizados de araucariaceae em diferentes concentrações de oxigênio por meio de termogravimetria e microscopia eletrônica de varredura 2021-12-01T14:14:27-03:00 Fernanda Marder Daniela Mueller de Lara André Jasper Dieter Uhl Simone Stülp <p style="user-select: text;" dir="ltr"><span style="user-select: text;">O </span><span style="user-select: text;">charcoal</span><span style="user-select: text;"> é um dos poucos legados duradouros dos incêndios florestais ao longo dos milhares de anos, representando um registro da dinâmica dos biomas terrestres, assim como as características do oxigênio atmosférico ao longo de suas eras. Com intuito do estudo sobre a compreensão das mudanças climáticas e das flutuações da disponibilidade de oxigênio atmosférico através dos tempos, a pesquisa utilizou a carbonização do lenho de </span><span style="user-select: text;">Araucaria columnaris </span><span style="user-select: text;">em</span><span style="user-select: text;">termodegradação (TGA)</span><span style="user-select: text;">com oxigênio de 30% e 21%, e temperaturas de 450°C e 600°C. Posteriormente, estas foram analisadas sob Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV) em diferentes aumentos, observando a anatomia do material em seus três planos estruturais e comparados a bibliografias de estudos desenvolvidos nessa área. O trabalho destacou um padrão na carbonização do lenho em ambas as atmosferas, com alterações significativas na estrutura física e química em todas as amostras. A pirólise com oxigênio e temperaturas elevadas, demonstrou maior agressividade do fogo, degradando com maior rapidez e intensidade, observando nos detalhes anatômicos que caracterizam as gimnospermas. Sendo assim, os estudos visam um maior entendimento da complexa relação entre o fogo e o planeta, e como as mudanças climáticas se tornam essenciais para a compreensão dos acontecimentos do futuro.</span></p><div style="user-select: text;"><span style="user-select: text;"><br style="user-select: text;" /></span></div> 2021-07-19T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Chemical profile, thermodynamic stability and fungicidal activity of the nanoemulsion incorporated with essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & LM.Perry 2021-12-01T14:12:16-03:00 Thaylanna Pinto de Lima Thayane Lopes de Sousa Joao Pedro Mesquita Oliveira Maria Giullia Alves Carneiro Felizardo Gustavo Oliveira Everton Victor Elias Mouchrek Filho <p style="user-select: text;">.<span style="user-select: text;" lang="EN-US">This work aimed to evaluate the fungicidal activity of nanoemulsions of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of sprouts of </span><em style="user-select: text;"><span style="user-select: text;">Syzygium aromaticum</span></em><span style="user-select: text;">. For the extraction of essential oil, the hydrodistillation technique was used. To obtain the hydroalcoholic extract, the process of maceration with solvent extract methanol P.A 70% (v / v) was performed. Nanoemulsions were obtained using the low-energy phase inversion method. For the fungicidal activity, the Broth Dilution and Agar Seeding assay was used to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (CFM). The action of the biotechnological product was tested against three strains of fungi </span><em style="user-select: text;"><span style="user-select: text;">Aspergillus niger, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Penicillium chrysogenum</span></em><span style="user-select: text;">. For antifungal action of the essential oil nanoemulsion, the MIC obtained was 25 µg mL</span><sup style="user-select: text;"><span style="user-select: text;" lang="EN-US">-1</span></sup><span style="user-select: text;" lang="EN-US"><span style="user-select: text;">, 25 µg mL</span></span><sup style="user-select: text;"><span style="user-select: text;" lang="EN-US">-1</span></sup><span style="user-select: text;" lang="EN-US"><span style="user-select: text;"> and 50 µg mL</span></span><sup style="user-select: text;"><span style="user-select: text;" lang="EN-US">-1</span></sup><span style="user-select: text;" lang="EN-US"><span style="user-select: text;">against </span><em style="user-select: text;">A. niger, C. gloeosporioides and P. chrysogenum</em><span style="user-select: text;">, respectively, for the hydroalcoholic extract nanoemulsion the result was 50 µg mL</span></span><sup style="user-select: text;"><span style="user-select: text;" lang="EN-US">-1</span></sup><span style="user-select: text;" lang="EN-US"><span style="user-select: text;">, 50 µg mL</span></span><sup style="user-select: text;"><span style="user-select: text;" lang="EN-US">-1</span></sup><span style="user-select: text;" lang="EN-US"><span style="user-select: text;"> and 100 µg mL</span></span><sup style="user-select: text;"><span style="user-select: text;" lang="EN-US">-1</span></sup><span style="user-select: text;" lang="EN-US"><span style="user-select: text;"> for </span><em style="user-select: text;">A. niger, C. gloeosporioides and P. chrysogenum</em><span style="user-select: text;">, respectively. Finally, this study points to the nanoemulsion of S. aromaticum as an alternative fungicide in the control and combat of pathogenic fungi</span>.</span></p> 2021-07-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Mitigation of CH4 emissions in sanitary landfills: An efficient technological arrangement to reduce Greenhouse gas emission. 2021-11-10T15:04:20-03:00 Henrique Rossi Otto José Carlos de Jesus Lopes <p style="user-select: text;">Problems related to the solid waste have been shown a relevant subject, by contributing to global warming and climate change. The MSW is one of the main sources of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions, especially the methane gas (CH<sub>4</sub>). Towards this concern, the general objective of this research is to estimate CH<sub>4</sub> emissions produced at the Dom Antonio Barbosa II Sanitary Landfill, situated in the City of Campo Grande, state of MS. Its aim, specifically, is to verify the gravimetric composition of these residues, as well as measure the amount of the MSW already existing and also the volume placed in the mentioned sanitary landfill. The CH<sub>4</sub> emissions were estimated in an accumulated total of 2,364,556.28 tCO<sub>2eq</sub>. It was obtained a total reduction of 1,479,693.87 tCO<sub>2eq</sub> by methane burning, transforming it into CO<sub>2</sub>, thus it was possible mitigating the emissions of 62.65% of CH<sub>4</sub> generated in DAB II landfill. It is expected that the results from this research contribute to the attenuation of the problems related to the MSW impact on the environment, as well as reflect on the effectiveness of the current adopted technological model.</p> 2021-09-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Decay rates for second-order linear evolution problems with fractional laplacian operators 2021-10-21T15:11:11-03:00 Cleverson Roberto da Luz Maíra Fernandes Gauer Palma <div id="icpbravoaccess_loaded">In this work we study the asymptotic behavior of solutions for a general linear second-order evolution differential equation in time with fractional Laplace operators in $\mathbb{R}^n$. We obtain improved decay estimates with less demand on the initial data when compared to previous results in the literature. In certain cases, we observe that the dissipative structure of the equation is of regularity-loss type. Due to that special structure, to get decay estimates in high frequency region in the Fourier space it is necessary to impose additional regularity on the initial data to obtain the same decay estimates as in low frequency region. The results obtained in this work can be applied to several initial value problems associated to second-order equations, as for example, wave equation, plate equation, IBq, among others.</div><div id="icpbravoaccess_loaded"> </div> 2021-03-01T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura The Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in the ABO blood group system: a case study in Engenheiro Coelho – SP 2021-11-09T15:22:32-03:00 Vinícius Freitas de Oliveira Guilherme Augusto Pianezzer Suzete Maria Silva Afonso <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">The genetics of human populations is the branch of Genetics that studies the dynamics of genes in natural populations, aiming at the elucidation of mechanisms that alter their genetic composition. Among the fundamentals of this science is the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, which determines that gene frequencies remain unchanged and genotypic proportions reach a stable balance, obtaining the same constant relation with each other over time. To demonstrate this principle, it is necessary to admit that the studied population is not subject to evolutionary factors or to those that alter genotypic frequencies, increasing the homozygosity. More specifically, it is necessary to assume that the population obeys the following premises: random mating, infinite population, non-overlapping generations, in addition to the absence of mutation, selection and migration. More than recalling basic concepts of Genetics and Statistics, this article aims to describe the Bernstein Method for verifying the gene equilibrium for blood types. The research is concluded with a case study in the city of Engenheiro Coelho - SP, where the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium for blood types in the population is verified.</p> 2021-03-01T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Os números híbridos de Leonardo 2021-12-01T14:08:47-03:00 Milena Carolina dos Santos Mangueira Francisco Regis Vieira Alves Paula Maria Machado Cruz Catarino <p style="user-select: text;">No presente trabalho apresentamos um estudo sobre a hibridização da sequência de Leonardo, a partir dos resultados obtidos sobre<br style="user-select: text;" />esta sequência apresentado por Catarino (2019) e sobre o conjunto dos números híbridos, apresentado por Özdemir (2018). Ao<br style="user-select: text;" />longo do texto discutimos a hibridização da sequência de Leonardo apresentando definições, teoremas, propriedades, proposições<br style="user-select: text;" />e identidades com o intuito de apresentar novos resultados relacionados a sequência de Leonardo. E ainda, apresentaremos, uma relação entre os números híbridos de Leonardo com os números híbridos de Fibonacci e, a partir desta relação, exibiremos três identidades clássicas vinculadas a esta sequência híbrida de Leonardo, que são as identidades de: Catalan, Cassini e d’Ocagne.<br style="user-select: text;" /><br /></p> 2021-07-13T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura As relações recorrentes n-dimensionais de Leonardo 2021-11-10T15:02:56-03:00 Renata Passos Machado Vieira Milena Carolina dos Santos Mangueira Francisco Regis Vieira Alves Paula Maria Machado Cruz Catarino <p style="user-select: text;">A sequência de Leonardo é uma sequência pouco conhecida, porém apresenta semelhanças com a sequência de Fibonacci. Dessa<br style="user-select: text;" />forma, prevalece os termos iniciais, diferindo apenas a relação de recorrência, a qual foi adicionado o valor 1 na recorrência<br style="user-select: text;" />de Leonardo. Com isso, este trabalho apresenta uma discussão referente às relações recorrentes n-dimensionais, com base noo<br style="user-select: text;" />modelo recursivo unidimensional Le(n) = Le(n−1) + Le(n−2) + 1, ∀n ∈ N, com Le(0) = Le(1) = 1 sendo os seus termos iniciais.<br style="user-select: text;" />A partir do processo de complexificação da sequência de Leonardo, são descritas as propriedades matemáticas dos números<br style="user-select: text;" />bidimensionais (Le(n,m)), tridimensionais (Le(n,m,p)) e n-dimensionais (Le(n,n2,n3, · · · , nn)) de Leonardo, permitindo-nos<br style="user-select: text;" />explorar propriedades e sua extensão para os inteiros.</p> 2021-09-21T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Multiple solutions, multi-site, and parameter transfer to calibrate DHSVM hydrological model 2021-10-21T15:11:09-03:00 Roberto Avelino Cecílio Helder de Amorim Mendes Sidney Sara Zanetti <p class="TextoResumo"><span lang="EN-US">The application of hydrologic models often needs sets of input parameters related to environmental attributes which are not always available. This leads to the necessity of calibrating the input parameters. However, due to the non-linearity of the hydrologic phenomena, there may be multiple “best” solutions for the calibration. This paper proposes a method for calibrating the DHSVM hydrologic model using the concepts of multiple solutions, multi-site, and parameter transfer among catchments. Eight watersheds were calibrated, resulting in obtaining five sets of “best” parameters (clusters) for each one. Afterward, each watershed was modeled using the parameters of the other catchments in order to verify if the transfer of the calibrated parameters could promote satisfactory modeling of the streamflows. The results show that clusters calibrated for one watershed may be suitable for other catchments. Besdes, the calibrated parameters of the smaller catchments were satisfactory to simulate the streamflow of the bigger catchments. The proposed method can be useful in calibrating and extrapolating the input parameters to regions that do not have information about them.</span></p> 2021-02-01T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Sediment yield estimation using the sediment-transport curve 2021-10-21T15:11:09-03:00 Danrlei Menezes Francisco Fernando Noronha Marcuzzo Marcia Conceição Rodrigues Pedrollo <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">Quantification of sediment yield is important in determining the impacts of erosion processes on the watersheds. One way to determine their values is through the construction of the sediment-transport curve. The objective of this work is to calculate the sediment yield and to analyze the time variation in a hydrosedimentological monitoring station by designing and adjusting the sediment-transport curve, testing the deviations for curve fitting with a single section and divided into two sections. The 87380000 station is located in the municipality of Campo Bom (RS), operated by CPRM. The sediment-transport curve was built in a single section and divided into two sections. In addition, the Excel solver was used to set the curve to the data. Comparison of the relative standard deviation calculated for each curve allowed a comparison of the results. The sediment-transport curve. that best represented the data set was the one constructed with the split in two sections adjusted by the solver.</p> 2021-03-08T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Rainfall influences in mapping landscape features of an archaeological site with the application of geophysical and geostatistical methods 2021-11-08T14:43:44-03:00 Jéssica Lisboa de Albuquerque Helyelson Paredes Moura Joaquim Carlos Barbosa Queiroz Aline Maria Meiguins de Lima <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">Archaeological studies are important for understanding the historical environments and analysis of the consequences of their changes in the current period, and geophysical methods are an important tool for enabling a low-impact analysis on these. This study evaluated the influence of rainfall in mapping of landscape features of the archaeological site AP-MA-05 using geophysical and geostatistical methods. To obtain the data, the geophysical method of electroresistivity was used in an area of UNIFAP of 10 x 20 meters. The rainfall data were collected in INMET station in Macapá. Data analysis was performed with use of statistical and geostatistical methods. In rainy season, soil resistivity presented a minimum of 198.7 ohm.m and maximum values of up to 3946 ohm.m, with an average of 1188.87 ohm.m. In the less rainy season the observed values were 394 ohm.m (minimum) and 5863 ohm.m (maximum), with an averaging of 2078.31 ohm.m. This demonstrates the influence of rainfall on apparent resistivity, since the more intense the rains that occurred at the time of data were obtained, the lower the values of electrical resistivity. The best association between the research method, the survey period based on climate aspects and the application of geostatistical methods facilitated the characterization of the site as a future support for its prospection.</p> 2021-03-08T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Determination of the intensity-duration-frequency curve of the municipality of Cruzeiro do Sul – Acre 2021-10-21T15:11:09-03:00 Nayara dos Santos Albrigo Maylla Tawanda dos Santos Pereira Nelma Tavares Dias Soares Gleibson de Souza Andrade Vinicius Alexandre Sikora de Souza Ana Lúcia Denardin da Rosa <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">Information on extreme rainfall events associated with predictability and probabilities, especially in intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves, are essential for the development of engineering projects aimed at sanitation, drainage and waterproofing of surfaces, which allow to offer more suitable conditions for dimensioning hydraulic and hydrological works and services. However, much of the North Region of the country does not have this information available or updated. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop the IDF equation for the municipality of Cruzeiro do Sul - AC. A 14-year historical series was used, distributed between 1993 and 2011, such data were analyzed by the Gumbel distribution, the same being related, by means of the daily rain breakdown, for return periods comprising 2 to 100 years and rainfall durations of 5 minutes to 24 hours. In the analysis for the construction of the curve, it was observed that the years 1995 and 2002 corresponded to the years with the highest precipitated height indexes, being 111 mm and 103 mm, respectively, however these events had an estimated return time between 3 and 8 years, which does not denote anomalous events. The IDF curve constructed in the study showed good adherence to the observed data, which proves its use in the region.</p> 2021-03-08T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Land cover and its relation to cultural landscapes naturalness: the case of Sorocaba (SP) 2021-10-21T15:11:10-03:00 Fabio Leandro Silva Welber Senteio Smith Marcela Bianchessi Cunha-Santino Irineu Bianchini Jr <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">The cultural landscapes consist in an element resultant from natural components conversion in other land use, process that implies in naturalness landscape loss and interferes in the ecosystem services provision. In this sense, the land use patter analysis and naturalness evaluation provide base to environmental problems comprehension and the human interference on natural systems. Front of this, the present work aimed to verify changes in the land use of Sorocaba (SP) municipality between 2007 and 2017, as well as the analysis of naturalness employing the Urbanity Index (IB). The results showed the predominance of agribusiness activities and urban areas. Reductions in agricultural class and increase of native vegetation were constated. In relation to Urbanity, was verified the predominance of categories that indicates low naturalness and a high anthropic interference, but with the native vegetation increase, occurred an expansion of high and medium naturalness areas. The IB allowed to verify the relation of land use and naturalness in a cultural landscape and pointed elements that should be considered in the planning.</p> 2022-01-14T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Environment occurrence of freshwater sponge Oncosclera jewelli in the Tainhas State Park, RS: a geomorphometric analysis 2021-10-21T15:11:10-03:00 Francine de Oliveira Maciel Clódis de Oliveira Andrades-Filho Pâmela Boelter Herrmann Mateus da Silva Reis Erli Schneider Costa Rodrigo Cambará Printes <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">Tainhas State Park embraces locations of occurrence of freshwater sponge Oncosclera jewelli. Our objective is to indicate the areas of potential occurrence of the species from factors related to the geomorphometric signature of the occurance points along the Tainhas River in the Park and its buffer zone. Connections and data analysis were performed from the construction and manipulation of a geographic database, in SIGs SPRING-5.4.3 and QGIS-2.18, containing: a) MDEs from Topodata, Embrapa and Alos bases, obtained by remote orbitals sensors for the entire study area, and MDE obtained by drone-generated aerial images of the geomorphometric variables: slope, aspect and topographic position index; b) geological map of Rio Grande do Sul; c) land use and coverage map, based on images from the GeoEye satellite. The results demonstrated that the species occurs exclusively on the lithological unit of Serra Geral Formation. The plain is marked by terrain of low slope and south and east orientation and flattened plains. The Potential Occurrence Map of the species was generated, demonstrating that approximately 4.5% of the total length of watercourse stretches in the study area meet the analyzed geomorphometric conditions.<strong></strong></p> 2022-01-14T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Assessment of spectral indexes for estimating soil water content in the Brazilian Pantanal 2021-10-21T15:11:10-03:00 Victor Hugo de Morais Danelichen Osvaldo Alves Pereira Marcelo Sacardi Biudes José de Souza Nogueira <p>The Pantanal is the largest floodplain of the globe occupying 138,183 km<sup>2</sup> in Brazil. The fundamental ecological factor of interaction between the Pantanal ecosystems is the flooding regime. Connected to properties of the soil-plant-atmosphere system, knowledge on the soil water content becomes increasingly necessary. The high temporal and spatial variability of water content in the soil caused by the vast heterogeneity of soil texture, vegetation, topography and climate makes it a difficult physical variable to be measured. However, its spatial and temporal variability can be determined by recent modern techniques of remote sensing based on data obtained by microwave or infrared sensors. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of vegetation and soil water indexes through satellite images from Landsat 5 in the northern Brazilian Pantanal. The study was conducted in a pasture, experimental site in the Northern Pantanal in Mato Grosso state. Soil moisture was measured using a TDR probe installed at 10 cm depth in the period from 2009 to 2011. For comparison, spectral indexes and the surface temperature provided by Geological Survey (USGS) were used, these indexes are derived from bands ratios of satellite reflectance products Landsat 5 TM. The data evaluation was performed using some indicators: accuracy - Willmott index, Root Mean Square Error and the Mean Absolute Error. This study demonstrated that the application of remote sensing in the management of water resources is very promising. The indexes correlated with soil moisture measurement. Among the soil water indexes the NBR-2 showed related to soil moisture measurement. For both types of soils EVI had the highest determination coefficient, lowest errors and highest Willmott’s index of agreement.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Studies and Geomorphological Classification of São Martinho da Serra - RS 2021-10-21T15:11:10-03:00 Antonio Von Ende Dotto Luís Eduardo de Souza Robaina The relief is one of the main definers of the environmental units, so that its compartmentalization is closely related to the distribution of the other attributes of landscape genesis. The objective of this study is to establish a division of the relief of the municipality of São Martinho da Serra, Rio Grande do Sul. Cartographic bases in digital format associated with the Geographic Information System were used, through automated methods and with the integration of morphometric variables. For the definition of the relief forms, the combined analysis of the morphometric attributes amplitude and slope was considered, identifying flat areas, gentle hills of altitude, rolling hills, association of hills with large hills and buttes and isolated buttes. The relief elements were obtained through the automatic technique that consists of the analysis of the gray level of a central cell and its neighbors, determining topographic differences. The identified elements are flat, peak, ridge, shoulder, spur, slope, hollow, footslope, valley and pit. For the classification of the forms of the slopes, the profile and plane of curvature of the slopes were used, defining 4 geomorphometric units defined as Unit I convex-convergent, Unit II concave-convergent, Unit III convex-divergent and Unit IV concave-divergent. In general, the methodology used obtained satisfactory results, allowing a quick and consistent analysis of the relief of the municipality. 2022-01-04T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Magnetic susceptibility in the characterization of spatial variability of soils attributes in subtropical soils 2021-10-21T15:11:10-03:00 Priscila Vogelei Ramos Ricardo Simão Diniz Dalmolin Jean Michel Moura-Bueno José Marques Junior Diego Silva Siqueira Daniel De Bortoli Teixeira <p>Magnetic susceptibility (MS) has been used to estimate soil attributes. With the proposal to increase the information of soils in southern Brazil the objectives of this work were: (i) evaluate the correlation of SM with soil attributes in a slope of subtropical basaltic soils; (ii) to characterize the spatial variation structure of MS and the content of sand, clay and COS; and (iii) identify the sample density that captures the spatial variability to assist future work under similar conditions. In a 22 ha area located in Santo Augusto - RS, Brazil, an 87 points sample grid was collected to determine soil attributes. Samples were also collected in five profiles along the slope. The profile data were analyzed by correlation to verify the degree of Pearson correlation of the SM with the attributes of the soil. In the sample grid spatial dependence analyzes were performed to assess the degree of spatial dependence on soil attributes. The MS presented a high correlation with the attributes of clay soil, Fes, Fed and COS. The evaluation of the spatial variation structure showed that the attributes presented a degree of spatial dependence ranging from weak for COS to strong for MS. The spatial variability pattern suggests a sample density of one point every 4 to 12 ha.</p> 2022-01-14T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Evaluation of susceptibility to mass movements from morphometric variables at the interface between the southern plateau and the central depression of the Vale do Taquari region – Rio Grande do Sul 2021-10-21T15:11:10-03:00 Tainara Godoy de Souza Áquila Ferreira Mesquita Alexandre Felipe Bruch <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">The occurrence of disasters in Brazil by natural processes has been increasing along the years. One of these phenomena is mass movements, a destructive phenomenon which may cause damage to socioeconomic. The morphometric variables are becoming useful in geomorphologic analysis, mainly in diagnosis of susceptible areas to those processes. This way, the objective of this work is to identify susceptible areas of mass movements in the interface between meridional plateau and the central depression in Vale do Taquari region, using geomorphometric variable at a scale of 1:250.000. This morphometric analysis contains Remote Sensing and geoprocessing, so it becomes an effective and low cost method. GIS software (Geographic Information System) was used to maps algebra from the statistical methods AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) and Delphi, in which pondering and the hierarchy of influential variables in this analysis. The final product is an analysis map of susceptibility to mass movements in the mentioned region. In the map it is observed that the region has a high degree of susceptibility in most aspects. With this data it is possible to carry out a proper planning and management of the territory, providing more safety to the occupation of those areas.</p> 2021-03-08T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Sustainability to soil water erosion: Capim river basin (MA-PA) 2021-10-21T15:11:10-03:00 Dênis José Cardoso Gomes Aline Maria Meiguins de Lima Edivaldo Afonso de Oliveira Serrão Hernani José Brazão Rodrigues <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">The objective of this study was to analyze the sustainability to water erosion in the Capim river/PA-MA. Acquired precipitation (GPCC), slope (TOPODATA project), land use and land cover data (MapBiomas) and pedology (Brazilian Soil Classification System) were obtained. Based on these variables, in a Geographic Information System environment, the product representing the sustainability to soil water erosion was generated. A sustainability gradient for soil water erosion was observed in the SE-NW direction, where it was higher near the mouth of the Capim River. The other variables were: clinical component presenting predominance of stability and high sustainability in the south of the basin; land use influences the entire axis of the basin, indicating instability in the medium-low Capim and in the extreme southeast. It was observed that the sustainability to erosion in the Capim watershed is motivated by intensified land use near the mouth. The zoning carried out in the basin is a warning sign for the municipalities of São Domingos do Capim, Rondon do Pará and Goianésia do Pará.</p> 2021-03-08T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Investigation of the relationship between rain and landslide in the municipality of Mauá - SP to obtain critical thresholds that trigger landslides 2021-10-21T15:11:10-03:00 Aloa Dandara Oliveira Damasceno Andrea de Oliveira Cardoso Cláudia Francisca Escobar de Paiva The Mauá city, Region of Grande ABC Paulista, is among the five municipalities of the São Paulo state with the most critical situation in relation to the number of records of geological accidents, which makes it vulnerable to intense and persistent rainfall. This study investigates the relationship between precipitation events and landslide occurrence in this municipality from the geological-geotechnical characterization of samples representative of the horizons most susceptible to the region's geodynamic processes, precipitation patterns and the frequency of landslides. It was found that rains of different intensities and durations can increase the number of landslides. In addition, the geological and geotechnical characteristics of the region's pedological horizons (residual soil from mica schist and granite) and anthropic interventions contribute to the magnitude of susceptibility to geodynamic and related processes. The curves of landslides obtained, for different criteria of daily and accumulated precipitation before the occurrence, showed that the greater the accumulated value of precipitation, the lower the intensity of daily precipitation necessary to trigger the landslides. The criteria indicated the daily total of 35 mm as the most restrictive, regardless of the value accumulated in days prior to the occurrences, which was validated with the cases of recent landslides occurred in the region, not considered in the calibration of the adjustment equation. In addition, in periods without rain in the previous days, the landslides will tend to occur with rainfall greater than 70 mm on the day of the event, an increase of this value may be observed with the increase in the number of previous dry days. 2022-01-04T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Oscilações hidroclimáticas associadas às condições ambientais: bacia hidrográfica do rio Canoas-SC 2021-11-09T09:23:34-03:00 Dênis José Cardoso Gomes Camila do Socorro Teixeira Soares Ingrid Cássia Porto Lima Nedilson Sanches Ferreira Aline Maria Meiguins de Lima <em>A Precipitação relacionada a condicionantes ambientais é determinante para a compreensão da dinâmica hidrológica em bacias hidrográficas. O objetivo deste trabalho consiste em analisar a variabilidade hidroclimática e condicionantes ambientais da bacia hidrográfica do rio Canoas-SC, caracterizando as áreas de maior e/ou menor vulnerabilidade climática. Utilizou-se o Índice Oscilação Sul, Oscilação da Antártica e Modo Meridional do Atlântico (National Oceanic Atmospheric and Administration); dados hidrometeorológicos (Agência Nacional de Águas); relevo (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais); uso e ocupação da terra (Ministério do Meio Ambiente). Adotou-se a Ponderação Regional, Índice de Anomalia de Chuva, Regionalização de vazão e o Índice de Pearson. As maiores precipitações foram em 2015 (2210,6 mm) e as menores em 1988 (1301,2 mm). O trimestre mais chuvoso é Dezembro-Janeiro-Fevereiro e o menos chuvoso Junho-Julho-Agosto, com as cheias no Alto Canoas (Setembro-Outubro-Novembro) e estiagem no Baixo Canoas (Março-Abril-Maio). A precipitação anual varia no sentido leste (1750,1 mm) a oeste (1883,1 mm). A bacia apresenta uma boa correlação da precipitação com o conjunto cota x vazão, já com os índices foi fraca. As formas de uso da terra e as variações altimétricas influenciam no padrão hidroclimático, sendo os extremos de estiagem e as enxurradas os desastres mais frequentes.</em> 2021-12-23T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Ocorrência da espécie arbórea exótica invasora Hovenia dulcis no estado de Santa Catarina 2021-10-21T15:11:10-03:00 Carla Luciane Lima Francisco Henrique de Oliveira Camile Sothe Felipe Echenique Alves A disseminação de espécies exóticas invasoras tem criado desafios complexos, pois ameaçam tanto as riquezas biológicas naturais do planeta, quanto o bem-estar de seus cidadãos. Nesse contexto, ações efetivas, principalmente quando se trata de espécies exóticas invasoras estão relacionadas ao conhecimento e compreensão a respeito do status da invasão e sua abrangência espacial. O objetivo deste artigo é contribuir para a expansão da informação a respeito da ocorrência da espécie arbórea exótica invasora Hovenia dulcis no Estado de Santa Catarina, por meio de uma compilação e análise de dados e publicações científicas.<em style="user-select: text;"> </em>Das 84 espécies de plantas consideradas exóticas invasoras em Santa Catarina, Hovenia dulcis é uma das espécies mais relevantes, apresentando 72 registros de ocorrência na Base de Dados Nacional de Espécies Exóticas Invasoras, 107 registros no Inventário Florístico Florestal de Santa Catarina e ainda 11 registros oriundos de publicações em periódicos científicos. Compilando e espacializando todas as informações constantes nas bases de dados, a espécie tem ocorrência registrada em 124 municípios catarinenses, além de ocorrer em algumas unidades de conservação no estado. O fato da Hovenia dulcis ocorrer em quase metade dos municípios Catarinenses aponta para a necessidade de medidas de prevenção controle e erradicação da espécie. 2021-12-23T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Relação da vegetação florestal com os componentes do relevo da Serra do Caverá (Rio Grande Do Sul, Brasil) utilizando o cálculo da razão de frequência 2021-12-01T14:05:43-03:00 Paula Mirela Almeida Guadagnin Romario Trentin <p style="user-select: text;">Como parte dos estudos da fitogeografia, a busca pela correlação entre os fatores do meio físico na explicação para o desenvolvimento de determinados tipos de vegetação, tem se tornado cada vez mais frequentes, principalmente com a aplicação de Sistema de Informações Geográficas (SIG), que permitem por exemplo, desenvolver análises das características do relevo onde ocorrências florestais são encontradas. O presente trabalho busca analisar a relação existente entre os componentes do relevo e a distribuição espacial da vegetação florestal na Serra do Caverá, na região sudoeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, definindo o cálculo da razão de frequência (Fr) entre as unidades geomorfométricas e a ocorrência da vegetação florestal. A caracterização do relevo foi estabelecida através da compartimentação do mesmo em unidades geomorfométricas, que representa a morfologia das vertentes quanto aos elementos de altitude, declividade, perfil e plano de curvatura. As ocorrências florestais foram definidas através da classificação supervisionada de imagens de satélite LANDSAT 8, sensor OLI e corrigidas através de trabalhos de campo e das imagens do Google Earth Pro®. Após o cruzamento das unidades geomorfométricas e da vegetação florestal pode-se estabelecer a relação entre ambas e através do cálculo da razão de frequência definiu-se as unidades com maior contribuição para a ocorrência da vegetação florestal e possíveis áreas de expansão da mesma. A proposta do trabalho mostrou-se eficiente, uma vez que foi possível definir a correlação entre unidades específicas de relevo que contribuem para a dispersão da vegetação florestal na Serra do Caverá.</p> 2021-09-14T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Simulation of Financial Market with Buying and Selling Optimized by Particle Swarm 2021-10-21T15:11:11-03:00 Kerolly Kedma Felix do Nascimento Jader da Silva Jale Tiago Alessandro Espínola Ferreira <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">It has been of great interest, both on the part of researchers and investors, to define negotiation rules that make it possible to capture the dynamics of the financial markets. This article presents a negotiation model among financial agents, based on the stock buying and selling process, that form a financial market. For the adaptation of economic agents to the market, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm was implemented to optimize trading rules between agents aiming at maximizing gains in the market. Times series of artificial markets and real Bovespa brazillian market, descripted by the index Bovespa, were used in the computational simulations. Through the simulations, the dynamics of the interaction of buying and selling between financial agents was explored. The results show that there is a dependence on the gains of the agents in the markets in relation to the trading strategies adopted. On the other hand, in the low markets this dependence was not observed, since no statistically significant differences were found for the amount of wealth accumulated among the market participants. For the Bovespa market, from the sell and purchase thresholds of the trades carried out, the agents that have the best strategies in the negotiations were identified.</p> 2021-03-10T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Proposals of non-linear models to adjust in vitro gas production at different incubation times in cassava genotypes 2021-10-21T15:11:11-03:00 André Luiz Pinto dos Santos Frank Sinatra Gomes da Silva Guilherme Rocha Moreira Cícero Carlos Ramos de Brito Maria Lindomárcia Leonardo da Costa Moacyr Cunha Filho Eloísa de Oliveira Simões Saliba Marianne Caron Oliveira Nélio Cunha Gonçalves <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">The present study aimed to propose new two-compartment models from the combination of the Gompertz, Logistic and Von Bertalanffy models and to identify between Gompertz and Logistic models, in their uni and two-compartiment versions, the one that presents the highest quality of fit to cumulative gas production curves of five cassava genotypes: Brasília, Engana Ladrão, Dourada, Gema de Ovo e Amansa Burro. The gas production readings were 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 17, 20, 24, 28, 32, 48, 72, and 96 hours after the start of the in vitro fermentation process. The estimation of the parameters for the models was made by the least squares method through the Gauss-Newton iterative process. The selection of the best model to describe the gas accumulation was based on the adjusted coefficient of determination, residual mean squares, mean absolute deviation, Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion. Among the adjusted models, the proposed models were the best to describe the accumulation of gases over time according to the methodology and conditions under which this study was developed.</p> 2021-03-10T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Sufficient number of replications for path analysis in maize 2021-10-21T15:11:11-03:00 Alberto Cargnelutti Filho Marcos Toebe Bruna Mendonça Alves Ismael Mario Marcio Neu Jéssica Andiara Kleinpaul <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">The number of replications is assumed to interfere in the estimates of the path analysis coefficients. Thus, the objective of this work was to determine the sufficient number of replications for the path analysis of traits in maize cultivars. An experiment was conducted with 15 maize cultivars in a complete randomized block design with nine replications, and seven variables were measured. Then, 511 data files (matrices) formed by all combinations of the nine replications were organized, in groups of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 replications. In each matrix, containing the averages of 15 cultivars for the seven variables, Pearson's linear correlation coefficients were estimated, the multicollinearity diagnostics and path analysis were performed and dispersion diagrams were constructed. The sufficient number of replications for the path analysis was determined from the parameter estimates of the quadratic response plateau model. With the replications number increases, the accuracy of the path analysis coefficient estimates improves, but the gains in accuracy gradually decrease. Six replications are sufficient to perform the path analysis of agronomic traits of maize cultivars and can be used as a reference for designing future experiments.</p> 2021-03-10T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Sample size for evaluation the of multicollinearity degree in productive traits of rye 2021-10-21T15:11:11-03:00 Ismael Mario Márcio Neu Alberto Cargnelutti Filho Cláudia Marques de Bem Jéssica Andiara Kleinpaul Cirineu Tolfo Bandeira <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">The objectives of this work were to determine the sample size (number of plants) necessary to estimate the indicators of the of multicollinearity degree - condition number (CN), determinant of the correlation matrix (DET), and variance inflation factor (VIF) - in productive traits of rye and to verify the variability of the sample size between the indicators. Five and three uniformity trials were conducted with the cultivars BRS Progresso and Temprano, respectively, and seven productive traits were evaluated in 780 plants. Twenty-one cases were obtained from seven traits, combined five to five. In each case, 197 sample sizes were planned (20, 25, 30, ..., 1,000 plants) and in each size 2,000 resampling were performed, with replacement. For each resample the CN, DET and FIV were determined and the average among 2,000 estimates of each indicator of the multicollinearity degree was calculated. Then, for each case and indicator, the sample size was determined through three models: models of maximum modified curvature, segmented linear with plateau response, and segmented quadratic with plateau response. There was superiority the quadratic model segmented with plateau in adjusting the degree of multicollinearity according to the sample size for all indicators. There is a need greater sample size to detect multicollinearity when diagnosed by DET and for sizes larger than 101, 258 and 102 plants when diagnosing for the number of conditions, determinant and inflation factor performed, respectively.</p> 2022-01-14T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Econometric modelling of time series applied in the generation of subsidies in the milk production chain in Rio Grande do Sul 2021-12-01T14:07:18-03:00 Francisca Mendonça Souza Brunna Aver de Paula Daniel Knebel Baggio Argemiro Luis Brum Juliana da Fonseca Capssa Lima Sausen <p>The purpose of this article is to make short-term forecasting using the methodology Box &amp; Jenkins, the Johansen method and the Granger causality, and the impulse-response function between variables price and milk production in Rio Grande do Sul’s market. The monthly price series of milk and its production in Rio Grande do Sul were analysed, in the period from January 1995 to December 2017. The model that suits best, for forecasts, the data of the series of the milk price paid to the producer was an ARIMA (1, 1, 1) and production was SARIMA (1, 1, 1) (1, 1, 1)6, which provided reasonable estimates of forecasts for the months from February to July of 2017. The use of Johansen methodologies identifies the existence of the one cointegration vector and a long-term equilibrium relation between variables price and production of the milk. When we analyse Granger's causality, the results point to a two-way relationship, that is, prices influence milk production and vice versa. The analysis of the impulse-response function showed that the shocks present significant impacts between production and cost, both in terms of duration and intensity.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura “Chemistry an experimental area!”: discourses about experimentation in a chemistry teacher training course 2021-11-10T14:44:16-03:00 Edson Frozza Bruno dos Santos PastorizaI This study aimed to understand circulation of discourses that mobilize a conception about the relationship between Chemistry and experimentation in a Chemistry Degree course, assuming its role as a supervisor of practices and seeking to problematize its effects on teacher education and Basic Education. Theoretical and methodological bases of Discourse Analysis were used in the process of research, analysis and construction of the text. The analysis points to emergence of discourses based on a conception that Chemistry is essentially an experimental area and that produces and reproduces practices, whether in production of chemical knowledge, or in teaching and learning processes, which are fundamentally based on achievement of experiments. In relation to teaching, this conception runs through ideas which are possible to problematize, such as that of experiment itself is enough for learning and that Chemistry is learned by doing. The results presented in this work show the importance of rethinking practices that are naturalized in the chemistry teacher training courses. 2021-02-01T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Digital root of a rational number 2021-11-10T14:46:02-03:00 Eudes Antonio Costa Deyfila da Silva Lima Élis Gardel da Costa Mesquita Keidna Cristiane Oliveira Souza The digital roots S* (x), of a n positive integer is the digit 0 ≤ b ≤ 9 obtained through an iterative digit sum process, where each iteration is obtained from the previous result so that only the b digit remains. For example, the iterated sum of 999999 is 9 because 9 + 9 + 9 + 9 + 9 + 9 = 54 and 5 + 4 = 9. The sum of the digits of a positive integer, and even the digital roots, is a recurring subject in mathematical competitions and has been addressed in several papers, for example in Ghannam (2012), Ismirli (2014) or Lin (2016). Here we extend the application Sast to a positive rational number x with finite decimal representation. We highlight the following result: given a rational number x, with finite decimal representation, and the sum of its digits is 9, so when divided x by powers of 2, the number resulting also has the sum of its digits 9. Fact that also occurs when the x number is divided by powers of 5. Similar results were found when the x digit sum is 3 or 6. 2021-03-01T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Using nursing students’ previous knowledge about cell as starting point of teaching planning 2021-11-10T14:47:17-03:00 Lidianne Salvatierra The prior knowledge of the student is extremely important for learning new content, and the diagnosis of such knowledge can assist teacher’s education planning. In this article the free association of words method was carried out to survey the students' previous knowledge in order to formulate a Cytology lesson plan. Thus, 60 freshman nursing students were asked to provide 15 words about the topic “Cell” during their first Cytology class. The initial analysis found that students had adequate prior knowledge with 210 terms (123 central terms and 87 derived terms) and 752 citation obtained. All terms were categorized into eleven categories and were used as references to construct a teacher education planning guide aiming a systematized knowledge by the common sense between the terms and frequencies of these categories. The teaching strategy sought the activation of student’s prior knowledge, content leveling and contextualized learning by focusing on concrete applications in students’ everyday life. The strategy allowed for greater assimilation of the content, motivation and participation in class by the students. In addition, an initial diagnostic evaluation form to collect associated free terms was formulated to facilitate the organization and analysis of prior knowledge data by the teacher. 2021-03-10T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura The use of digital technologies in calculus teaching at UFPel: An analysis of GAMA project initiatives 2021-11-10T14:48:47-03:00 Cícero Nachtigall Henrique David Campelo Pierre Teixeira da Silva Rejane Pergher <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">This paper sought to address the use of technologies aimed at enhancing mathematical learning at the university level. We sought to identify impacts of the GAMA project initiatives: Mathematics Support Group of the Federal University of Pelotas - UFPel that use Digital Information and Communication Technologies (TDIC) to create and make available audiovisual support resources and collaborative virtual spaces. The first part of this study reports the project experience in the production of pedagogical videos. Among other aspects, a presentation was made of the process of elaboration and availability of the videos in the referred channel, as well as their use in GAMA activities. The second part of the work reported on the project experience with the WhatsApp groups, which were created with the goal of providing collaborative virtual spaces. In particular, we present the result of an investigation that analyzed the content of 3,647 messages posted by students, scholars and teachers in the two existing groups. The research results allow us to conclude that the resources recently added to GAMA activities represented important alternatives to enhance the teaching / learning process in mathematics, resizing and resignifying the space traditionally assigned to the classroom.</p> 2021-03-10T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Problem situations as mediators of STS articulations in science education 2021-11-10T14:50:41-03:00 Elisangela Barreto Santana José Alexandre da Silva Valente Nadia Magalhães da Silva Freitas <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">In the present work, we focus on evaluating the potential use of problem situations as a didactic and pedagogical strategy to the insertion of the STS approach in the context of the final years of elementary school. It is an action research, developed during a continuous formation of science teachers, in the format of a study collective. Together with the teachers, we developed four projects with students from sixth to ninth grade, totaling over 1500 students. We resorted to discursive textual analysis for the apprehension of pertinent aspects to the STS approach, which allowed us to realize that the proposal proved to be subject to discussions and articulations about science, technology and/or society; favored the process of appropriation of scientific knowledge, ie, it provided scientific literacy and led to awareness and/or decision making, that is, provided the exercise of citizenship.</p> 2021-03-10T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Sexually Transmitted Infections in high school biology textbooks: a content analysis 2021-10-21T15:11:08-03:00 Halana Rafaela Alves da Silva Thaís Soares da Silva Gemilton de Freitas Mesquita Isabella Macário Ferro Cavalcanti <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">The aim of this study was to analyze the content of STIs in the didactic collections of Biology of 2018 recommended by the National High School Textbook Program (NHSTP) of the Ministry of Education. Eight didactic collections of biology of NHSTP were selected and analyzed. The methodology of the study was thematic content analysis, with the definition of five categories a priori: location of the theme; structure and formatting; content; language and visual resources that were divided into criteria and subcriteria. The other books evaluated did not address the subject to the satisfaction, being flawed/superficial, which shows that the theme STIs can still be better explored in some biology textbooks in high school. Therefore, it is still important to encourage teachers to explore the subject better with their students, going beyond textbooks. Thus, the study concluded that most of the high school books recommended by NHSTP do not address the theme STIs effectively, generating the need for complementary didactic planning by teachers in order to broaden the debate on this subject in the classroom.</p> 2021-03-10T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Knowledge of university students regarding the use of toxic substances, daily and eating habits with carcinogenic character 2021-11-10T15:00:06-03:00 Raphael da Silva Costa Alexandre Azenha Alves de Rezende Luciana Karen Calábria <em style="user-select: text;">The knowledge of university students regarding the use of toxic substances, daily and eating habits with a carcinogenic character was assessed by using a semi-structured questionnaire. In addition, a systematic review was carried out on an electronic basis on the subject. The results revealed that university students know little about the risks and association of high consumption of hyperglycemic foods, omega-6 and red meat, as well as the exposure to BPA and insecticides, despite the fact that most are aware of the harmful effects of excessive use of cell phones and its relation with cancer. Thus, we notice the importance of disseminating preventive information that promotes a change in living and eating habits with carcinogenic character, resulting in self-care and a better quality of life.</em> 2021-08-16T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Avaliação de desempenho na educação superior: uma abordagem utilizando a Análise Envoltória de Dados 2021-11-10T15:01:41-03:00 Andreia Zanella Renata Melo e Silva de Oliveira <p style="user-select: text;"><span style="user-select: text;">O Conceito Preliminar de Curso (CPC) é considerado o principal indicador de qualidade da educação superior brasileira. As principais críticas ao CPC encontradas na literatura estão relacionadas aos pesos atribuídos às diferentes componentes do indicador e ao fato de não levar em conta a heterogeneidade das instituições de ensino superior (IES). Levando em consideração os componentes do CPC, este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar o desempenho dos cursos de graduação por meio de um indicador compósito construído com base na Análise Envoltória de Dados (DEA). Nesta abordagem, os pesos das componentes resultam de um processo de otimização. Por isso, são menos propensos à subjetividade, ao mesmo tempo em levam em consideração as prioridades das políticas institucionais. Como resultado, pode-se obter estimativas de desempenho que permitem comparabilidade entre cursos semelhantes de diferentes IES. Uma das vantagens do uso de DEA neste contexto é que tornou-se possível identificar os cursos com baixo desempenho e, simultaneamente, identificar cursos de referência que podem ser considerados exemplos de melhores práticas (<em style="user-select: text;">benchmarks</em>). Com o intuito de demonstrar as vantagens deste método alternativo de cálculo do CPC, foi conduzida uma análise de cursos de Administração em IES brasileiras da esfera pública com dados do ano-base de 2018.</span></p> 2021-08-25T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura MHS e MCU: a conexão desses movimentos no ensino de física 2021-11-10T14:58:33-03:00 Rafaela Coutinho de Oliveira Édino da Silva Brito Gabriel Willian Callegari Alexandre Jitsuo Fuzita Vitor Hugo Dias Ferrara Daniela Lopes Elizeu Saulo Portes dos Reis <pre style="user-select: text;">O presente trabalho é o resultado de um esforço conjunto realizado entre alunos da disciplina Oscilações e Ondas do curso de licenciatura em física do Instituto Federal de São Paulo. Diante das inúmeras equações diferenciais inerentes ao estudo do movimento oscilatório, surgiu a questão: como abordar esse tema no ensino médio? A dificuldade reside no fato de que o aluno nessa etapa de ensino não tem como compreender equações diferenciais. Sendo assim, foi desenvolvido uma proposta de abordagem para o ensino do Movimento Harmônico Simples (<span style="user-select: text;">MHS</span>), a partir da relação desse movimento com o Movimento Circular Uniforme (<span style="user-select: text;">MCU</span>). Além disso, propõe-se uma demonstração para as equações dos períodos desse tipo de movimento. Com o intuito de trazer ao aluno uma experiência mais concreta acerca do tema, dois experimentos com material de baixo custo foram propostos e executados pelos autores.</pre> 2021-08-14T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura ABP no contexto aromas: uma proposta de material paradidático para o ensino de funções orgânicas 2021-11-10T14:54:48-03:00 Fernando Vasconcelos de Oliveira Vanessa Candito Mara Elisa Fortes Braibante <p class="western" style="user-select: text;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="user-select: text;">A Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas é uma metodologia de ensino centrada no aluno, pois promove de forma ativa a autoaprendizagem, o trabalho em equipe, o pensamento crítico, por meio da resolução de problemas. </span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">O estudante de hoje apesar de ter acesso facilitado aos meios de pesquisa e informação, não se sente estimulado a fazer uma investigação acerca dos conteúdos vistos em sala de aula. Assim, sugere-se que novas estratégias de ensino sejam adotadas pelos docentes, na tentativa de estimular o interesse pela disciplina. Nessa perspectiva, esse estudo apresenta um guia paradidático, elaborado com o objetivo de contextualizar as aulas de Química Orgânica no Ensino Médio, por meio da temática “Aromas”, utilizando a Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas (ABP) como metodologia. A história usada como problemas, nesse material, foi aplicada com quatro turmas do 3ª ano do Ensino Médio, em uma escola estadual, na cidade de São Sepé/RS. Os resultados demonstraram que é possível aprimorar os resultados e o interesse dos escolares, quando se utilizam metodologias inovadoras ao ensino tradicional. </span></span></span></span></span></p> 2021-07-06T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Interfaces entre a política nacional de proteção e defesa civil e a política nacional de educação ambiental 2021-11-10T14:53:03-03:00 Amanda Regina Coutinho da Silva Masato Kobiyama Franciele Maria Vanelli <br style="user-select: text;" /><table class="data" style="user-select: text;" width="100%"><tbody style="user-select: text;"><tr style="user-select: text;" valign="top"><td class="value" style="user-select: text;"><p style="user-select: text;">As políticas públicas refletidas como propostas do governo para solucionar problemas públicos. A sinergia entre distintas políticas públicas pode viabilizar a efetividade das soluções. Portanto, existem grandes desafios para o estabelecimento de interfaces entre políticas públicas. Assim, este trabalho objetivou analisar a Política Nacional de Proteção e Defesa Civil (PNPDEC) e a Política Nacional de Educação Ambiental (PNEA) e propor diretrizes para sua integração. Os resultados desse estudo demonstram que o PNPDEC e o PNEA apresentam alto potencial de sinergia e integração. Portanto, para efetivar ambientes como políticas públicas, sugere-se a criação de programas definidores de métodos e mecanismos para gerenciamento de riscos e desastres na educação formal e não formal permanente. Sugira que você integre os diversos atores sociais que compõem a sociedade contribuindo para ampliar o conhecimento sobre prevenção, mitigação e preparação para desastres, bem como noções de desenvolvimento sustentável. Portanto, a consolidação dessas duas políticas públicas pode viabilizar a responsabilidade compartilhada entre o poder público e os cidadãos.</p></td></tr></tbody></table> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Promovendo a aprendizagem sobre infecções sexualmente transmissíveis por meio de uma sequência didática 2021-11-10T14:56:37-03:00 Gemilton de Freitas Mesquita Aline Furtuozo de Souza Thais Soares da Silva Isabella Macário Ferro Cavalcanti <p style="user-select: text;">Este artigo tem como objetivo contribuir com o processo de ensino-aprendizagem do tema Infecção Sexualmente Transmissível (IST) através da aplicação de sequência didática (SD) para alunos do ensino médio. O professor realizou uma SD composta por 10 aulas em 5 etapas. Iniciou-se com um jogo de tabuleiro, acompanhado por roda de conversa, leitura de textos e estudos de casos sobre ISTs com apresentação, em equipes, ao grande grupo. Seguida de aula expositiva e dialogada, além de aula interdisciplinar para o conhecimento e construção de livros paradidáticos. A avaliação do ensino-aprendizagem foi realizada através da análise de questionários prévio e pós SD, além da avaliação contínua apresentada pelo desenvolvimento do aluno ao longo da intervenção, sendo contemplados o processo investigativo e a autonomia do aluno. Observou-se grande aceitação e participação dos estudantes, além de uma média positiva do questionário avaliativo pós SD e a produção e desenvolvimento dos paradidáticos pelos quatro grupos formados, sendo concluído por duas das quatro equipes. Assim, a SD e a elaboração de um livro paradidático são ferramentas que podem auxiliar professores a formar alunos mais conscientes sobre questões relacionadas às ISTs e, consequentemente, terem uma postura mais crítica diante de questões cotidianas sobre as mesmas.</p><p style="user-select: text;"> </p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Letramento científico e percepções populares: uma análise sobre conhecimentos de Ciência e pseudociência 2021-12-06T21:24:36-03:00 Mairon Melo Machado Gustavo Medeiros da Silva Leandro Goya Fontella <p>Uma análise a respeito do conhecimento e crença em tópicos de pseudociência foi realizada na cidade de São Borja, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A pesquisa aborda uma discussão conceitual sobre o que é Ciência, pseudociência, suas principais diferenças e impactos sociais no mundo contemporâneo. Foi aplicada uma entrevista estruturada com 1078 moradores da cidade, para compreender a relação dos entrevistados com tópicos pseudocientíficos, oferecendo dados quantitativos a respeito desse tema. Percebe-se que não são apenas pessoas com baixa instrução educacional que acreditam em informações falsas oriundas das mais diversas mídias, pois alguns com formação superior também creem em ideias não científicas, como a homeopatia, a astrologia, o terraplanismo, etc. Os dados são comparados com análises realizadas por diversos autores, buscando discutir formas de prevenir a população em geral e desmistificar as pseudociências. A partir deles, atividades foram realizadas com alunos de Ensino Médio e superior da cidade de São Borja, buscando enaltecer o papel do professor no processo de formação dos alunos como executores e participantes de um conhecimento científico.</p><p style="user-select: text;"> </p> 2021-10-09T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Statistical classification of homogenous surface temperature regions 2021-10-21T15:11:11-03:00 Carlos Eduardo Salles de Araujo <p class="Textoresumoabstract"><span lang="EN-US">Time series of hourly temperature from 146 weather stations located in Santa Catarina State – South Brazil were used to show that a compact data representation, using probability density functions (pdf) parameters, could be useful to classify homogeneous air temperature areas. The normal distribution fitted well the 146 weather stations temperature time series, presenting a median value of 0.9721 for the Pearson correlation coefficient. The means and standard deviations obtained by adjusting the Gaussian functions for the 146 stations were used as input parameters for two different classifiers: hierarchical and k-means. Both classifiers separated Santa Catarina's weather stations into four distinct groups. These groups had direct relationship with altitude ranges and with the influence of sea. The classification of weather stations in different homogeneous groups was useful to identify climatic behaviors of hourly temperatures. In addition to the characterization of the climate itself, this classification can be useful as a support for the validation of numerical weather forecast models, and for the identification of abnormal temperature time series in a regional spatial context.</span></p> 2021-02-01T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Daily Global and diffuse radiation in the Brazilian Cerrado-Amazon transition region 2021-10-21T15:11:11-03:00 Tamara Zamadei Adilson Pacheco de Souza Frederico Terra de Almeida João Franscisco Escobedo <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">This study aimed to analyze the seasonal variations in atmospheric transmissivity and solar radiation (global and diffuse) on the horizontal surface in Sinop, Mato Grosso (MT) (11.865°S, 55.485°W, and altitude of 371 m) from 06/02/2011 to 12/31/2014. The values of diffuse radiation were measured using the Melo-Escobedo-Oliveira (MEO) shadow ring, with application of astronomical, geometric, and anisotropic correction factors. The analysis of atmospheric transmissivity was based on the classification of sky cover as cloudy, partly cloudy, partially clear, or clear. The diffuse radiation showed similar behavior to the radiation at the top of the atmosphere, reaching a maximum between October and April (rainy season), while the global radiation displayed higher levels during the dry season (May to September). The average daily global radiation ranged from 22.75±0.61 MJ m<sup>−2</sup> d<sup>−1</sup> in August to 16.44±1.45 MJ m<sup>−</sup><sup>2</sup> d<sup>−</sup><sup>1</sup> in January. In Sinop, cloudy and partly cloudy skies occurred on 45.6% of days and atmospheric transmissivity of global radiation was greater than 55% on 54.6% of days. The variations in diffuse radiation in the region were influenced by cloudiness and the concentration of biomass burning aerosol particles. The diffuse radiation can represent 8.02%–99.12% of the global radiation and 5.33%–29.01% of solar energy incident at the top of the atmosphere.</p> 2021-04-15T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Changes in precipitation rates over the last 70 years in Eastern Paraná State, Brazil 2021-10-21T15:11:11-03:00 Bruno Henrique Toná Juliani Cristhiane Michiko Passos Okawa Miriam Rita Moro Mine <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">Temporal hydrometeorological series may present variations over time. The awareness of these characteristics is important to improve the monitoring of changes that these series may suffer along time. In this regard, the present paper aims to identify the existence of precipitation trends for the east portion of Paraná state, in Brazil, and also investigate the changes in the observed rates over the last 70 years. The statistical tests of Mann-Kendall and Pettitt, and also the Theil-Sen estimator, are applied for series of precipitation from 13 pluviometric stations of eastern Paraná state, Brazil, with 70 years of data records. By the results it was identified long-term linear positive trend for 11 of the precipitation series and also detected medium-term patterns in precipitation over 10 stations, characterizing the Joseph effect. These series have presented a behavior with higher rates in the most recent years in comparison from the first years of the historical data, sectioning the complete series into two shorter stationary periods, and presenting an abrupt change point.</p> 2021-06-02T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Suppression of Pratylenchus brachyurus and soybean growth inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus 2021-10-21T15:11:07-03:00 Edicarla Trentin Valéria Ortaça Portela Juliane Schmitt Reyllis Kiefer Unfer Zaida Inês Antoniolli Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti Jacques <p class="TextoResumo">Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi perform a variety of plant-beneficial processes. including increased resistance to disease. The objective of this work was to study arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizoglomus clarum effect on phytonematode Pratylenchus brachyurus suppression and on soybean plants growth. Two experiments were performed under greenhouse conditions. First. soybean plants growth was evaluated in mycorrhizal fungi presence and absence. In the second experiment. phytonematode damage in soybean cultivated in mycorrhizal fungi presence and absence was evaluated. During soybean flowering was evaluated mycorrhizal colonization, dry matter, nodulation, chlorophyll and nutrient content in plant tissue, nematodes number in soil and root penetration, and nematode reproduction factor was obtained, R. clarum mycorrhizal colonization reduced by 64% the number of nematodes penetrated in roots and increased soybean plants nodulation, nutrient absorption and dry matter accumulation. The stimulation to mycorrhization is a strategy to reduce damage caused by Pratylenchus brachyurus to soybean plants.</p> 2021-02-01T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura New Occurrences of Macrofungi (Basidiomycota) in Southern Amazonas, Brazil 2021-10-21T15:11:07-03:00 Felipe Sant'Anna Cavalcante Milton César Costa Campos Janaína Paolucci Sales de Lima <p>Macrofungi are organisms that have macroscopic reproductive structures, called ascocarps and basidiocarps, and are important representatives of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, respectively. The Amazon rainforest, as it offers a large number of natural resources, is one of the biomes that has been under great environmental pressure and sustainable use that takes into account social, economic and ecological factors is extremely important for protecting the forest. Given this context, this work aimed to present the characterization of the species that constitute occurrences of macrofungi for the Southern region of the state of Amazonas, contributing to the expansion of the knowledge on the geographical distribution of the specimens found. This survey was carried out at the Tenente Pimenta Jungle Base located 20 kilometers from the Municipality of Humaitá- state of Amazonas. The collections were carried out in two different periods, in the pre-existing trails of the Tenente Pimenta Jungle Base (54<sup>th</sup> BIS). 115 specimens belonging to 11 families were found, with species belonging to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota being identified. The data related to the collection periods of macroscopic fungi were from August 2019 and November 2019. In August 2019, a dry season in the Amazon, with little rain, 70 specimens of macrofungi were collected. In November, a rainy period in the Amazon, 105 specimens of macrofungi were collected. The data obtained from this research will serve as a basis for further studies in the state of Amazonas, since it is a pioneer in the southern region of the state. There is a great diversity of macrofungi in the study area, however, edaphoclimatic factors are relevant at different periods of the year.</p> 2022-01-14T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Diagnosis of environmental degradation in the humid slope of the Uruburetama Massif and its surroundings 2021-10-21T15:11:10-03:00 Eduardo Viana Freires Cláudio Ângelo da Silva Neto Cynthia Romariz Duarte César Ulisses Vieira Veríssimo Daniel Dantas Moreira Gomes Allison de Oliveira Maia The various interventions in the Uruburetama Massif have generated a situation of degradation that compromises local economic, social and environmental sustainability. As a way of warning about the worsening of environmental problems, this research aims to make a diagnosis of environmental degradation in the humid hillside of the Uruburetama Massif / CE and its surroundings, in order to assess the impacts generated from human actions. The research methodology consisted of data acquisition, with a bibliographic review, orbital images and vector data obtaining; and carrying out field activities to recognize and identify land use and occupation and its associated impacts. Subsequently, these data and actions supported the characterization and thematic mapping of the research area. From the integration of these data, it was verified that the humid slope of the Uruburetama Massif has an advanced stage of degradation from the urban expansion and agricultural activities. The interventions occur even in the areas of permanent preservation, contrary to the Brazilian Forest Code (12.651 / 2012 Law). The state and municipal public authorities contribute to the degradation situation by making road openings without the necessary care to stabilize the slopes. There is also the absence of legislation (Installment, Zoning and Use and Occupation) that supports the process of monitoring, inspection and control of urban expansion and agricultural activities in some municipalities. Although the municipalities in the study area (Irauçuba, Itapajé, Itapipoca, Pentecoste, Tejuçuoca, Trairi, Tururu, Umirim and Uruburetama) have an environmental management body, their actions occur in a deficient manner due to lack of technical, financial and human resources, or because there are conflicts of interest when carrying out their activities integrated with other departments, such as agriculture, water resources, fishing, culture and tourism. 2021-03-08T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Conflict of land use in Permanent Preservation areas of the Marapanim River Basin, northeastern Pará 2021-10-21T15:11:10-03:00 Ádanna de Souza Andrade Suezilde da Conceição Amaral Ribeiro Bruno Wendell de Freitas Pereira Paulo Eduardo Silva Bezerra Valter Vinicius Pereira Brandão <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">Permanent preservation areas contribute significantly to maintaining the quality of water resources and protecting against erosive events. In this sense, this work mains of is to analyze the land use conflict in the permanent preservation areas of the Marapanim River basin, located in the northeast of the State of Pará. To this end, it data were processed using images Landsat of the years of 1988, 1998, 2008 and 2017 to discuss changes in land use for each year. Afterwards, land use was overlapped with the Permanent Preservation Areas of the basin (PPA), to identify the types of use that are interfering in the limits that should be maintained as PPA. The results showed that in three of the four years of analysis, the exposed soil class was present in more than 20% of the inadequate land use in PPA, followed by the Farming class, which increased almost 300% the occupation in PPA in the first to last year of study. Thus, this study can support public policies in order to monitor the sources and margins of water courses for a better management of water resources in this region.</p> 2021-03-08T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Mass movements inventory of the Mascarada river watershed/RS 2021-10-21T15:11:10-03:00 Gabriel Lopes Cardozo Franciele Zanandrea Gean Paulo Michel Masato Kobiyama <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">Mass movements inventories play a key role to the understanding of watershed dynamics. The alteration of this dynamics occurs in the moment of failure and after it due the erosion when precipitation hits the uncovered soil at the mass movement scars. Thus, this paper has characterized these mass movements, which are classified as landslides, occurred in Mascarada´s river basin through different geomorphological parameters, as slope and curvature, and comparing shape parameters against different methodologies to determine the evaluation area. The proposed shape parameters Percentage of affected area (<em>PAA</em>), Drainage density of scars (D<sub>dc</sub>) and Density of scars (D<sub>cic</sub>) were evaluated against total area of Mascarada´s river basin, against two sub-basins and against a proposed “Area of influence”. 407 scars were mapped with an area of 2,2 km², a mean slope of 36,1° and all scars are in convergent areas. The evaluation of shape forms showed that “area of influence” improved the understanding of this mass movements magnitude. Thus, the elaboration of mass movement inventories with reliable methodologies can provide important information for the natural disaster management.</p> 2021-03-08T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura A Remote Sensing methodological approach for monitoring the contamination in Paraopeba River after the disaster in Brumadinho-MG 2021-10-21T15:11:11-03:00 Neison Cabral Ferreira Freire Admilson da Penha Pacheco Vinícius D'Lucas Bezerra Queiroz <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">The following article aims to present and discuss the monitoring, through Remote Sensing, of the dirt displacement caused by the collapse of the Córrego do Feijão’s dam I of mining waste, which occurred on January 25, 2019, in the rural area of Brumadinho, a city located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This event is considered one of the greatest technoindustrial disasters in Brazilian history, placing in danger one of the largest hydrographic basin in Brazil: the São Francisco river basin. The search area comprises from where the sludge mud got in contact with the Paraopeba’s right bank to its mouth into the Três Marias Dam, adding up to approximately 315 km. For this monitoring the spectral band ratio method was utilized, using images from the sensors MSI/Sentinel-2 and OLI/Landsat-8 captured at different dates, employing standardization of means and variances to harmonize the range of the surface reflectance values in each image.</p> 2022-01-14T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Spatial autocorrelation proposal of the relationship between the socioeconomic conditions in Metropolitan Region of Sorocaba, SP, Brazil 2021-10-21T15:11:11-03:00 Darllan Collins da Cunha e Silva Vanessa Cezar Simonetti Renan Angrizani de Oliveira Jomil Costa Abreu Sales Roberto Wagner Lourenço <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">The spatialization of social data allows to analyze some social and territorial characteristics of census tracts up to the totality of a city or metropolitan region. The objective of this study was to verify the spatial autocorrelation of data that reflect the health and income conditions of households in the Metropolitan Region of Sorocaba (MRS) and verify if there is a correlation of these indicators by a multiple linear regression test. For this, the Global and Local Moran Index was calculated, which were used to measure autocorrelation and spatial dependence among the census tracts. It was identified that there are 177 census tracts distributed by MRS that showed autocorrelations for all variables and correspond to 31.1% of the territory and 5.4% of the total population of MRS. This study can be used by public managers to develop public policies aimed at improving the quality of life of the population because allows the identification of the regions that go beyond the administrative limits of the municipalities that lack collective investment and cooperation of municipalities.</p> 2022-01-14T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Incorporation of rubber ash as a partial substitute of fine aggregates in concrete 2021-10-21T15:11:09-03:00 Eduarda Gameleira Bernardino Marcos Antonio Valencio Emerson Schwingel Ribeiro José Eduardo Gonçalves Maria Lúcia Hiromi da Silva Okumura Natália Ueda Yamaguchi <p>The construction industry is responsible for a high consumption of natural resources, demanding high quantities of aggregate materials for use in construction. In addition, large quantities of rubber waste generated worldwide have emphasized the need to find practical reuse applications. The present study partially replaces fine aggregates by ash from a co-processing of milled and burned conveyor belt rubber waste. Test specimens with ash concentrations of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%, were made comparing its workability, mechanical axial resistance and absorption of water by capillarity. It was concluded that the partial replacement of sand by 5% of rubber ash has improved the traditional concrete mixture, with better workability, less amount of water, leading to a greater resistance to axial compressive and acceptable absorption of water. Thus, the results confirm that the concrete with incorporation of rubber ash is a potential alternative technology to achieve sustainable development in the construction industry.</p> 2021-02-01T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Parasitic density and ornithochoric potential of wild birds: preliminary results of a research and extension project carried out in a reforestation area at IFRJ Campus, Pinheiral, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 2021-10-21T15:11:09-03:00 Sérgio Thode Filho Heider Alves Franco Emanuele Nunes de Lima Figueiredo Jorge Mariana de Souza Oliveira Jhon Lennon Genovez de Oliveira Lucas de Assis Silva Andrade Carlos Nei Ortúzar Ferreira Saulo Tavares Abreu Carla Maronezi Águida Aparecida de Oliveira Viviane Moreira de Lima Ildemar Ferreira Bruno Pereira Berto <p>This publication aims to disseminate to the scientific community and society in general, the project of the same title of this publication that is under development by the collaboration of the Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ) and the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de aneiro (UFRRJ). Briefly, this project aims to quantify and identify parasites of the body surface (ectoparasites) and intestinal parasites (enteroparasites) of wild birds, which should be related to their biological and ecological conditions, and to evaluate the dispersal seed process performed by birds (ornithocoria), the viability and development of these seeds and thus establish the degree of importance of ornithocoria in reforestation at the IFRJ campus of Pinheiral, RJ. The project includes the integration of five doctoral professors, a laboratory technician doctor, as well as a postdoctoral student, four doctoral students, one master student, two undergraduate students and four technical high school students. To date, six expeditions have been made in the reforestation area of the Espaço Ecológico Educativo (EEcoE) of the IFRJ campus in Pinheiral, RJ, where a total of 196 wild birds have been captured, evaluated, ringed and recorded at the Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Conservação de Aves Silvestres (CEMAVE), of which 29 were recaptured for revaluations. Four articles were published on the themes of parasitology and ornithochory in wild birds. Two practical short courses in the area of study were taught in September 2018 and February 2019 to IFRJ students, but open to the scientific community and society at large. Currently the project is not expected to end, since there are plenty of unpublished and relevant results in both the area of parasitology and ornithochory of wild birds.</p> 2021-03-01T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Potential absorption of mercury-contaminated substrate by Trichoderma sp isolated from Brazil Nuts and Amazon Soil 2021-10-21T15:11:09-03:00 Antonio Ferreira Oliveira Alexandro Cezar Florentino Adriana Maciel Ferreira Irlon Maciel Ferreira Ivana Fonseca Costa José Tavares Carvalho <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">Mercury is an inorganic contaminant with serious harmful consequences to the environment. There has been a continuous rise in its level due to industrialization and other anthropogenic activities, such as the burning of coal and petroleum products, use of mercurial fungicides in agriculture and mercury catalyst in industries, and production of waste by paper industries. Five strains of Trichoderma sp., a filamentous fungi, were used in this study to evaluate their resistance to high concentrations of mercury for the purpose of using them for bioremediation. The solid culture medium used was prepared with malt agar 2% with pH 7.0 in which the strains of Trichoderma sp. were inoculated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the selected Trichoderma sp. isolates was calculated considering the time for growth and concentration of the mercury salt (Hg(NO3)2). At a mercury concentration of 50 mg/mL, maximum growth was first observed in TCH 1 (89.42 ± 0.63 mm) followed by TCH 2 isolate (87.33 ± 0.58 mm). At this concentration, all isolates reached the maximum mycelia growth. When the concentration of 200 mg/L Hg(NO3)2 was used, complete growth inhibition of the isolates was observed. Scanning electron microscopy suggested that differences in sporulation between the control and mercury treatment groups. In conclusion, it can be stated that Trichoderma isolates have great potential for bioremediation of sources contaminated with mercury.</p> 2021-03-01T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Solid discharge in a microbasin of the Amazon region 2021-12-06T18:43:27-03:00 Cássio Fernando Simioni Frederico Terra de Almeida Cornélio Alberto Zolin Eduardo Morgan Uliana Adilson Pacheco de Souza Adriana Marques <p style="user-select: text;" align="center">The processes of water erosion and sedimentation occur naturally, however, they are being accelerated by human activities. Many microbasins lack information regarding the water resource, land use and occupation, as is the case of the Caiabi River microbasin, in which sediment production is potentiated by agricultural practices. The objectives of this study were to evaluate sediment transport in the Caiabi River and establish a rating curve for solid discharge from data obtained between 2018 and 2020, involving measurements of suspended sediment concentration, bed-load sediments and flow.The suspended and total solid discharges were established as a function of the flow rate through power, exponential, polynomial and linear equations, which parameters were adjusted by the method of least squares. The statistical evaluation of the rating curves indicated that the total solid discharge estimated from associations between suspended and bed-load sediments is the one that best represents the transport of sediments in the Caiabi River while the exponential model offers the best fit to the observed data.</p><p style="user-select: text;"> </p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ciência e Natura Evaluation of toxic effect of bamboo preservatives on Lactuca sativa germination and growth 2021-10-21T15:11:09-03:00 Hugo Rocha Scharfenberg Marcos Massao Shimano Antônio Ludovico Beraldo Ana Carolina Borella Marfil Anhê <p class="41Textoresumoabstract">Materials such as wood and bamboo in their various applications are subject to degradation by deteriorating organisms like fungi and insects. Chemical treatments are routinely used by bamboo professionals aiming to control this degradation. However, it is usual the dispose of these used solutions on soil and the environmental risks and effects on vegetation of this improper disposal are still unknown. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the phytotoxicity of CCB solutions (compound based on copper, chromium and boron), tetrahydrate sodium octaborate and CB (copper sulfate with boric acid) under different concentrations in the germination and development of lettuce (<strong>Lactuca sativa</strong>). The pH and electrical conductivity of the prepared solutions were also measured. The results show that the three preservatives are phytotoxic and inhibit root development, even after dilutions of 50 times that used by professionals. Thus, the disposal of these effluents in the soil or water bodies may have negative environmental impacts on vegetation, requiring treatment after use on preservation of the culms or higher dilutions of the effluents before the disposal.</p> 2021-03-03T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Water quality in individual groundwater supply systems in Southern Brazil 2021-10-21T15:11:09-03:00 Silvana Isabel Schneider Jaqueline Ineu Golombieski Debora Seben Kananda Cabral Menegazzo Arci Dirceu Wastowski Willian Fernando de Borba Samara Terezinha Decezaro Raphael Corrêa Medeiros <p style="user-select: text;">This study aimed to evaluate the potability of drinking water in ten municipalities of <em style="user-select: text;">Rio Grande do Sul</em> State, Brazil, distributed in rural and urban areas, with three different sources: springs, shallow wells, and deep wells. The water quality parameters analyzed from 2017 to 2019 were: pH, temperature, apparent and true color, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, total hardness, nitrate, total phosphorus, total iron, fluoride, biochemical oxygen demand, total coliforms, and <em style="user-select: text;">Escherichia coli</em>. A macroscopic analysis was also conducted in the surrounding of sampling points. According to the Brazilian and the WHO (World Health Organization) guidelines, some of the analyzed variables, in some sampling points, were in disagreement with the current both guidelines, which are pH, apparent color, turbidity, total iron, total coliforms, and <em style="user-select: text;">Escherichia coli</em>. The surveillance showed that the deeper the water is abstracted the less are natural and anthropogenic interferences in physical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics of the water; and the protection of the location where the water is abstracted improves its quality. Nonetheless, for the sampled waters it is necessary a disinfection process for posterior human consumption.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Water quality of the Atibaia river in the city of Paulínia/SP: evaluation of the Electrical Conductivity and Chloride variables 2021-12-06T15:44:05-03:00 Camila Pereira Montovani Cassiana Maria Reganhan Coneglian Elaine Cristina Catapani Poletti <p style="user-select: text;">The present study aimed to evaluate the characteristics that most influenced the water quality variability of the Atibaia river in the city of Paulínia/SP, the coordinates of the water collection point are given by 22º44'23”(S) and 47º07 ' 40 ”(W), in the dry and rainy seasons, from 2006 to 2016. The data used in this study come from the monitoring of parameters carried out in the spring by a research team, accompanied by periodic collections of surface water samples and analyzes laboratory tests. The parameters addressed included: precipitation, temperature, Hydrogenionic potential (pH), turbidity, thermotolerant coliforms (<em style="user-select: text;">Escherichia coli </em>(<em style="user-select: text;">E. coli</em>)), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (N<sub style="user-select: text;">total</sub>), total phosphorus (P<sub style="user-select: text;">total</sub>), total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) and chlorides (Cl<sup style="user-select: text;">-</sup>). Water quality was assessed using linear correlation analysis, using the Pearson Correlation coefficient (r), and Multivariate Analysis, using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The presence of EC, Cl<sup style="user-select: text;">- </sup>and COD in both periods indicates quality characteristics related to the mineralization of organic compounds present in the water and the eutrophication process.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Breve exame sobre os prazos de análise das entidades envolvidas em processos de licenciamento ambiental federal simplificado 2021-12-06T15:42:31-03:00 Ricardo Abranches Felix Cardoso Junior Alessandra Schwertner Hoffmann Lillian Monteath Carolina Vasconcellos Salcedo Benoit Lagore Bruno Busato Rocha Visando analisar alguns dos motivos dos atrasos na implantação e entrada em operação dos projetos de sistemas de transmissão no Brasil, o presente estudo pondera sobre os prazos e definições dos regramentos Portaria MMA nº 421/2011, Portaria Interministerial nº 60/2015, Portaria MS/SVS 01/2014, IN IPHAN 001/2015 e IN FCP 01/2018 aplicáveis no licenciamento ambiental de empreendimentos de transmissão de energia, passíveis de licenciamento ambiental federal simplificado, considerados de pequeno potencial de impacto ambiental pelo IBAMA e sua interface com órgãos envolvidos FCP, IPHAN e MS/SVS. Os regramentos e seus prazos foram aplicados no software MS Project e o resultado foi que o processo de licenciamento simplificado de projetos de sistemas transmissão de energia ficam controlados pelos prazos de manifestação dos órgãos envolvidos e não pelos prazos do órgão ambiental licenciador. Desta forma, apesar de todo o esforço em buscar um desenho do sistema de transmissão de energia com menor impacto socioambiental e, com isso, ser enquadrado pelo IBAMA como empreendimento de pequeno potencial de impacto ambiental, o cronograma de projeto não será compatível com o que está definido na Portaria MMA nº 421/2011. 2021-06-30T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Impact of urbanization on the water quality of the Uberaba River and tributaries 2021-12-06T15:40:37-03:00 Anna Ligia Leocadio Domingues Amanda Cunha Biscalquini Ana Paula Milla dos Santos Senhuk Ana Carolina Borella Marfil Anhê <p style="user-select: text;">This paper evaluated the quality of the water in Uberaba River and tributaries. Seven sites were sampled, in a 12-km under the influence of the urban area. The sampling site started upstream the raw-water catchment station, passing through the urban perimeter, upstream and downstream the discharge of the effluent treated by the Sewage Treatment Plant. Benthic macroinvertebrates were collected using a Surber net and, after identification, the indices of BMWP, diversity, equitability and dominance were calculated, besides functional group analysis. In each sampling site, it was analyzed microbiological and physicochemical parameters in order to identify possible domestic and/or industrial pollution sources. A rapid assessment protocol (RAP) was also applied, and land use and occupation aspects were mapped. The water collected in the furthest sampling site from the urban area and with vegetation in the surroundings, presented satisfactory quality, based in BMWP index. However, this quality dropped to very poor as the river water crossed the urban perimeter. The land use and occupation map showed a predominance of agriculture/pasture and urbanization. In addition, the presence of <em style="user-select: text;">E. coli</em> and the high levels recorded for some metals (principally cooper and cadmium), suggested contamination of the water with domestic and industrial effluents. <strong style="user-select: text;"></strong></p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Poluição da baía de Guanabara: esgoto e sanitário e efluentes 2021-12-06T15:39:02-03:00 Cassia Melo Duarte Maria Geralda de Miranda <span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">A Baía de Guanabara é um patrimônio natural, que necessita de monitorização não só da água, mas da fauna e da flora. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">A cada década, aumenta-se a degradação por esgoto doméstico e industrial, embarcações e lixões em suas margens. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Este estudo objetivou identificar nas produções científicas voltadas para uma espécie da Baía de Guanabara respostas para a qualidade da água e problemas ligados ao tratamento de esgoto sanitário e efluentes. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">A pesquisa foi realizada no acervo eletrônico da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scielo e Banco de Dados do Google Acadêmico e evidenciou artigos, boletins, manuais e sites governamentais, em uma busca flutuante no período de 2012 a 2020. A discussão e os resultados adequados o quão importante é a Baía, cuja degradação prejudica o ecossistema e a vida humana, </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">sendo necessário estruturar planos de intervenção nesse meio ambiente local. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Conclui-se que é necessário uma fiscalização mais efetiva e punitiva das empresas e cumprimento da legislação do saneamento básico pelos governos municipais.</span></span> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Design guidelines for on-site stormwater detention 2021-12-06T15:37:26-03:00 Flávio Bentes Freire Ricardo Cesar Conrado de Souza Michael Mannich <p style="user-select: text;">The city of Curitiba-PR has a municipal decree that establishes the criteria for the design of flood detention tanks. However, these guidelines do not guarantee minimum efficiency during operation, as it may vary depending on their base area, water depth and flow regulating orifice diameter. In this research, a design method was proposed, establishing some new criteria that relate impervious areas of the lots to the tank design parameters. The efficiency definition was established with the premise that the tanks should provide the return of flows from an impervious area to its pre-urbanization scenario. This reduction was established as 70% of the peak flow in the city of Curitiba-PR. Based on simulations of flow routing with the Puls Method, the optimum geometric characteristics (volume, area, water depth and orifice diameter) of the tanks were obtained to guarantee the decrease in the peak. Comparing the results obtained from the municipal legislation design, the new method provided n minimal efficiency and a decrease of 24% of the tank volume.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Agro-industrial wastes for biotechnological production as potential substrates to obtain fungal enzymes 2021-12-01T14:16:55-03:00 Jéssica Crecencio Matei João Arthur dos Santos Oliveira João Alencar Pamphile Julio Cesar Polonio <p style="user-select: text;">Agro-industrial wastes contain high moisture content and are rich in nutrients, and can be used as useful substrates by microbes with the supplementation of nitrogen sources, thus providing an alternative tool for the industrial production of many products of economic value, such as enzymes for example. These are proteins that function as biological catalysts, responsible for carrying out various biochemical reactions, being applied in detergent, food, paper and cellulose, cosmetics, textile industries, etc. However, they are expensive raw materials, and it is worth noting that an important part of the cost of manufacturing enzymes is mainly due to the expense of means and fermentation processes. Thus, to minimize the cost of this production and in order to reduce the degradation of the environment due to agricultural waste, a variety of microorganisms and agro-industrial “by-products” can be used to facilitate the economic production of enzymes.Therefore, in this work, a review was carried out on agro-industrial residues and the main enzymes in the industrial market, as well as the use of these materials as sources to obtain enzymes produced by fungi.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura The Environmental Protection Areas tragedy: an analysis of the implementation of Nature Conservation Units, Brazil 2021-11-10T15:04:50-03:00 Carlos André Luz Jeronymo Elmo Rodrigues da Silva Kenny Tanizaki Fonseca <p style="user-select: text;">The Environmental Protection Area (EPA) is a management category of the Nature Conservation Unit (UC) of the National System of Nature Conservation Units (NSNCU), Brazil. In 2019, it was the third number of management category sites (n. 355) and the largest in extension in the country, with approximately 50% of the protected coverage of NSNCU. However, there are reports on EPA problems, especially concerning setting and operating their sites. In this paper, we ask, Did the public authorities implant APAs appropriately administrative spheres (federal, state, and municipal) of the public authorities? The hypothesis is that most EPA i) are not implanted. In other words, they are not suitable, enough and ongoing resources, and ii) in completed operation. This article aims to analyze the site's accomplishment of the EPA management category. The methodological procedures involve a literature review, documentary research, and exploratory research from the National Register of Conservation Units (NRCU) and EPA data. In conclusion, none of EPA complies is following NSNCU, and all of them also need to be implanted and managed in degree.</p> 2021-09-17T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura The Ideal of Environmental Protection as Protected Areas: a literature review 2021-12-06T21:19:47-03:00 Carlos André Luz Jeronymo Elmo Rodrigues da Silva Kenny Tanizaki Fonseca <p class="Textoresumoabstract">This article analyzes the evolution process of the Protected Areas and the changes in views regarding environmental protection. It is a literature review. In Brazil and other countries, the Protected Areas were created according to international models with different conceptions, mainly the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) recommendations. In the IUCN International Protected Areas System, specific categories of strict sense protected areas allow natural resources and human occupation. In others not. The debate on this issue remains controversial worldwide. On the one hand, there are preservationists (strict protection believers) who argue that only sites with the objective of strict preservation should have the status of Protected Areas. Conservationists believe that such sites could maintain this status, even though they are not exclusively focused on strict preservation. The historical trend persists in considering land use and access to natural resources in occupying space, emphasizing issues of their domain and management, causing conflicts of views and interests. As a result, the establishment and maintenance of areas to be protected become more complex, mainly when they are historically occupied and used by man.</p> 2021-09-16T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Morphoagronomic characterization of Landraces of Zea mays L. in an agroecological production system 2021-10-21T15:11:07-03:00 Guilherme Bortolini Barreto Claudia Petry Cláudia Braga Dutra <p class="TextoResumo">The objective of this study was to verify if Landrace maize compared to conventional hybrid corn differ in cycle and morphoagronomic traits when grown in agroecological system. The experiment was conducted at the Center for Agricultural Research at the Passo Fundo University, in a randomized block design with five replications, three Landraces of Creole maize (“Cabo roxo”, “Aztequinha” and “FrancoBrazileiro”) and hybrid maize. conventional (22s18 - Sementes Sempre). The fertilizer inputs were made with organic compost and Efficient Microorganisms (MS). Spontaneous species population, phenological cycle, stem diameter, ear and grain characteristics and yield per hectare were evaluated. The treatments did not differ significantly in the evaluation of the cycle in days presenting statistical difference only in plant height at the end of the cycle, where the Landrace “Cabo roxo” presented height of 209,9 cm. Regarding plant and ear characterization, the treatments differed significantly only in the evaluation of grain weight per ear, where the conventional hybrid reached 170,4 g. Thus, it was found that there is little significant difference between the local breeds and the conventional hybrid in the agroecological production system using mulch mass.</p> 2021-02-01T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Plant diversity of tree and shrub strata of agroforestry homegardens in an agro-extractive settlement, Monte Alegre, Pará 2021-10-21T15:11:06-03:00 Deiwisson Willam da Silva Santos Thiago Almeida Vieira This study aimed to evaluate the floristic composition of 37 agroforestry homegardes of the community of São Diogo, located 40 km from the municipality of Monte Alegre, Pará. In order to reach these homegardens, the "snowball" technique was used. In the manager settlers’ house, the data collection was done through tour-guided. Informations were collected about: plant species cultivated in tree and shrub strata, size and age of each system, and management practices. The Shannon index was used to assess the diversity of homegardens. There were 32 species belonging to 26 genera, divided into 18 botanical families, all of them fruit trees, 85.7% of which were used exclusively for self-consumption. The most frequent species were Cocos nucifera, Euterpe oleracea, Citrus limon and Mangifera indica. The homegardens presented on average 12 years of age, with average size 1,973 m². It was highlighted the greater participation of women in the management decisions and activities of these systems. Homegardens are an important for food security and income sources for managers. 2021-02-01T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Photosynthetic performance, lipid peroxidation and morphological aspects of papua exposed to different soil water conditions 2021-10-21T15:11:06-03:00 Leandro Lima Spatt Sidinei José Lopes Sylvio Henrique Bidel Dornelles Vinicius Severo Trivisiol Mariane Peripolli Elisandro Azeredo Nunes <div data-canvas-width="564.204554323725">This paper aimed to elucidate the behavior of Urochloa plantaginea biotype with differential physiological characteristics, which allows a better growth and development in a flooded environment. A completely randomized experimental design was used 2x3, being the factors: populations of Urochloa plantaginea (lowlands and highlands) and soil water conditions (50% and 100% of soil water retention capacity (CRA); water depth 5 cm). Responses related to photosynthetic parameters and lipid peroxidation were verified 24h and 192h after the onset of water conditions. Morphology-related</div><div data-canvas-width="38.35572041927031">variables were measured at the end of the plant cycle. The lowland biotype compared to the highland biotype showed superior morphophysiological characteristics under soil flooding. It can be emphasized, higher water use efficiency (about 30%), higher plant height, lower aerial part lipid peroxidation and higher aerial part dry matter increment. In addition, the lowland biotype was shown not to vary photosynthetic parameters A, Gs, Ci, E, USA and A / Ci when exposed to the water depth 5 cm, compared with the 100%</div><div data-canvas-width="553.6703301753681">CRA condition. Both populations survived and ended their cycle producing seeds. Thus, apossible adaptive process of the population to the flooded environment is evidenced.</div> 2021-03-01T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Redox signaling and inflammatory statuses of farmers exposed to agrochemicals 2021-10-21T15:11:06-03:00 Roberta Cattaneo Horn Mariana Spanamberg Mayer Patrícia Wolkmer Ana Caroline Tissiani Aimê Cunha Arruda Gabriela Bonfanti Azzolin Paulo Ricardo Moreira Diego Pascoal Golle Tiago Antonio Heringer Caroline Alegransi Jana Koefender <p class="Textoresumoabstract"><span lang="X-NONE">Physiological changes take place in the human body upon exposure to pesticides. These changes may be followed by oxidative stress, which is caused by imbalance between the antioxidant defense system and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Pesticides can cause inflammatory changes, which alter the structure of some cytokines essential for the functioning of the human body. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to assess the oxidative and inflammatory status of farmers exposed to pesticides. Blood samples from 50 exposed farmers and 50 non-exposed individuals (Control Group - CG) were collected. Oxidative stress and inflammatory marker levels were assessed. The assessed farmers reported higher levels than the CG, as follows: TBARS (p &lt;0.0001), IL-6 (p = 0.03700), IL-8 (p = 0.0011) and IL-10 (p = 0.0011) (p &lt;0.001), GST (p &lt;0.001), GST (p &lt;0.001), GST (p &lt;0.001) 0001) and BChE (p &lt;0.0001). Farmers presented high oxidative stress, low antioxidant levels and inflammatory changes.</span></p> 2022-01-14T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Reproductive biology of espinheira-santa (Monteverdia ilicifolia, Celastraceae) 2021-10-21T15:11:06-03:00 Tângela Denise Perleberg Rosa Lia Barbieri Márcio Paim Mariot Tamires Ebeling da Silva Josiane Mendonça Vitória Patrick da Silva Silva Rafaela de Sousa Corrêa de Magalhães <p><em>Monteverdia ilicifolia</em>, popularly known as espinheira-santa, is a medicinal plant native of Brazil used in the treatment of gastritis and gastric ulcers. This paper aimed to evaluate floral morphology and biology, to characterize the reproductive system and to describe the reproductive phenology of <em>M. ilicifolia</em>. Floral morphology and biology analysis on espinheira-santa plants from an Active Germplasm Bank were performed. The reproductive system was evaluated through self-pollination, apomixis, cross-pollination, natural pollination and geitonogamy tests. Reproductive phenophases were followed for two years and correlated with climatic variables. All evaluated flowers are morphologically hermaphrodites; however, three floral types were found in terms of sexual expression: functionally female flowers, functionally male flowers and hermaphrodite flowers. Functionally male and functionally female flowers occur in different plants, characterizing an evolutionary process for dioecy in this species. The floral types can be differentiated by comparing the stamens length with the style length, stamens position, the color of the anthers and the amount of pollen in each flower. The species presented a preferably allogamous reproductive system. The reproductive period occurred from June to February, considering that the reproductive phenophases are correlated with temperature and length of day.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Pollinators and seed dispersers of espinheira-santa (Monteverdia ilicifolia - Celastraceae), a Brazilian medicinal plant 2021-10-21T15:11:07-03:00 Tângela Denise Perleberg Rosa Lía Barbieri Márcio Paim Mariot Rejane Peter Gustavo Crizel Gomes Tamires Ebeling da Silva Josiane Mendonça Vitória Patrick da Silva Silva Rafaela de Sousa Corrêa de Magalhães <p>Espinheira-santa (<em>Monteverdia ilicifolia</em>) is a native plant of Brazil widely used in folk medicine because it has several therapeutic properties. Regarding the pollination biology and seed dispersal of this species, there is no information available in the literature. In this study, pollinators and dispersers of <em>M. ilicifolia</em> were observed and identified, as well as the behavior of these biological agents during the period of flowering and fruiting. In addition, the frequency of pollinator visits and the efficiency of the seed disperser were recorded. It was verified that in espinheira-santa, pollination is carried out by diptera and by hymenoptera. Among the main groups of pollinators are the flies, being <em>Lucilia eximia</em>, <em>Limnophora</em> sp. and <em>Eristalis</em> sp. the most frequent, and the wasps, in which <em>Brachygastra mellifica</em>, <em>Polistes canadensis</em>, <em>Mischocyttarus</em> sp. and one species of the Tiphiidae family were the most frequent. Eight species of birds consumed diaspores (arils with seeds), acting as dispersers of this species. However, the following birds were more efficient in the dispersion of seeds: <em>Tangara sayaca</em>, <em>Elaenia</em> sp. and <em>Pipraeidea bonariensis</em>. In this sense, <em>M. ilicifolia</em> is a species that has entomophilous pollination and ornithochoric dispersion.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Recovery processes in areas affected by mining: a scienciometric review 2021-10-21T15:11:07-03:00 Thiago Pereira Mendes Luciano F. A. Montag Thaisa Sala Michelan Gracialda C. Ferreira Naiara R. Torres Alana Patrícia Guterres Ana Luísa Fares Lenize Batista Calvão Calebe Maia Carina Kaory S. Paiva Thiago A. P. Barbosa Luciana L. Santos Tiago O. Begot Ana Luiza Andrade Mylena Neves Cardoso Leandro Juen <p>A major challenge in using recovery techniques, for the different natural ecosystems affected by mining, is a mutual relationship between the habitat and its biota response. This study aimed to do a review to identify the number of publications, which countries are publishing more and which recovery techniques and taxonomic group are used in mining areas globally have contributed to the maintenance or recovery of the environment. We reviewed the literature on recovery in mining areas worldwide, between 1994 and 2016, using the Web of Science online database. We identified 9,000 publications, after the selection procedures, we analyzed the 467 remaining manuscripts. Of these, 34.26% were published between 1994 and 2004, and 65.74% between 2006 and 2016. The countries that contributed the most were the USA with 16.45%, Australia with 13.56% and China with 8.66%. Brazil contributed 6.9% of the publications. The recovery techniques using vegetation were the most reported in the literature and most used. The taxonomic group of terrestrial plants was the most cited and most used in the recovery of degraded areas. We found various techniques for recovering degraded areas can be established, but most of them did not show proper monitoring and without this the recovery processes may not achieve their objectives and studies that test the effect size of these recovery methods are still necessary.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura Evaluation of antioxidant, antimicrobial, toxicological, and larvicidal activity of Psychotria fractistipula L.B. Sm., Klein & Delprete 2021-10-21T15:11:07-03:00 Camila Freitas de Oliveira Fernando Cesar Martins Betim Vinícius Bednarczuk de Oliveira Angela Maria de Souza Vanessa Barbosa Bobek Cristiane Bezerra da Silva Sandra Maria Warumby Zanin Josiane de Fátima Gaspari Dias Obdulio Gomes Miguel Marilis Dallarmi Miguel <p>The objective of this study was to assess the potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, and toxicological properties of crude extracts and fractions obtained from the leaves and stem of <em>Psychotria fractistipul</em><em>a</em> L.B. Sm., Klein &amp; Delprete. The content of phenolic compounds varied significantly between samples (783.70–78.22 GAE mg/g), with the highest concentrations being in the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves and stem (679.39 and 783.70 GAE mg/g, respectively). The latter yielded also the best IC<sub>50</sub> of the DPPH radical, which amounted to 9.48 and 4.75 µg/mL, respectively; whereas other samples ranged up to 156.64 µg/mL. Similarly, phosphomolybdenum activity varied between 90.17% and 16.00%, with the ethyl acetate fractions of the leaves and stem corresponding to 90.17% and 87.37%, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was elevated in the leaves crude extract (<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, 62.5 µg/mL), leaves ethyl acetate fraction (<em>S. aureus</em>, 31.25 µg/mL; <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em>, 62.4 µg/mL), and the stem ethyl acetate fraction (<em>S. aureus</em>, 31.25 µg/mL; <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, 62.5 µg/mL). Hemolytic activity was high in the chloroform fractions of the leaves (1000 µg/mL) and stem (500 µg/mL). Larvicidal activity against <em>Aedes aegypti</em> was observed in the hexane fraction of the stem (LC<sub>50</sub>, 297.44 µg/mL). The ethyl acetate fractions of the stem and leaves were toxic to <em>Artemia salina</em>, with LC<sub>50</sub> values of 277.91 and 933.89 µg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that <em>P. fractistipul</em><em>a</em> may constitute an unexplored source of natural antioxidants and antimicrobials with low toxicity.</p> 2022-01-04T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ciência e Natura