Evaluation of surface fluxes using the WRF model – a case study to the Bananal wetlands’ region
Keywords:Amazonian Forest, Turbulent surface heat flux, Wetlands
The present work aimed to analyze the simulations of surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, and global radiation using the mesoscale atmospheric model (WRF) for the Bananal Island (Tocantins state, Brazil) region during three distinct seasonal periods (flooded, dry, and wet) in 2004. The final analysis of the NCEP global model was used as initial and boundary conditions of the WRF, which horizontal resolution (5 km) and physical parameterizations follow the operational settings used at CPTEC/INPE. The global radiation, the simulated sensible and latent heat fluxes were consistent with the observed data for the daily cycle, where the R2 was higher than 0.8, showing a good correlation between the data. However, the WRF outputs overestimates/underestimates follow a distinct seasonal pattern between global radiation and heat fluxes. There are some hypotheses for this result, such as potential limitations of the model in describing the surface conditions, whether static or dynamic. Future studies may investigate how sensitive the WRF would be when updating surface conditions for scenarios closer to reality, especially the flooded surface situation.
BEZIAT, P.; CESCHIA, E.; DEDIEU, G. Carbon balance of a three crop succession over two cropland sites in South West France. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, v. 149, p. 1628–1645, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2009.05.004, 2009.
BI, X.; GAO, Z.; DENG, X.; WU, D.; LIANG, J.; ZHANG, H.; SPARROW, M.; DU, J.; LI, F.; TAN, H. Seasonal and diurnal variations in moisture, heat, and CO2 fluxes over grassland in the tropical monsoon region of southern China. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, v. 112, p. 1–14, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007889, 2007.
BORMA, L. S.; ROCHA, H. R. D.; CABRAL, O. M.; RANDOW, C. V.; COLLICCHIO, E.; KURZATKOWSKI, D.; BRUGGER, P.; FREITAS, H.; TANNUS, R.; OLIVEIRA, L.; RENNÓ, C. D.; ARTAXO, P. Atmosphere and hydrological controls of the evapotranspiration over a floodplain forest in the Bananal Island region, Amazonia. Remote Sensing, v. 114, p. 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JG000641, 2009.
DIAZ, M.; ROBERTI, D. R. Cálculo das trocas de carbono num agroecossistema de arroz com aplicação de técnicas de preenchimento de falhas. Ciência e Natura, v. 36, p. 27–31, https://doi.org/10.5902/2179460X16211, 2014.
FONSECA, L. D. M.; DALAGNOL, R.; MALHI, Y.; RIFAI, S. W.; COSTA, G. B.; SILVA, T. S. F.; ROCHA, H. R. D.; TAVARES, I. B.; BORMA, L. S. Phenology and Seasonal Ecosystem Productivity in na Amazonian Floodplain Forest. Remote Sensing, v. 11, p. 1–17, https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11131530, 2019.
HARIPRASAD, K.; SRINIVAS, C. V.; NAIDU, C. V.; BASKARAN, R.; VENKATRAMAN, B. Assessment of surface layer parameterizations in ARW using micro-meteorological observations from a tropical station. Meteorological Applications, v. 23, p. 191–208, https://doi.org/10.1002/met.1545, 2016.
JUNK, W. J.; PIEDADE, M. T. F.; CUNHA, C. N. da; WITTMANN, F.; SCHÖNGART, J. Macrohabitat studies in large Brazilian floodplains to support sustainable development in the face of climate change. Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology, v. 18, p. 334–344, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecohyd.2018.11.007, 2018.
JUNK, W. J.; PIEDADE, M. T. F.; LOURIVAL, R.; WITTMANN, F.; KANDUS, P.; LACERDA, L. D.; BOZELLI, R. L.; ESTEVES, F. A.; CUNHA, C. Nunes da; MALTCHIK, L.; SCHöNGART, J.; SCHAEFFERNOVELLI, Y.; AGOSTINHO, A. A. Brazilian wetlands: their definition, delineation, and classification for research, sustainable management, and protection. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, v. 24, p. 5–22, https://doi.org/10.1002/aqc.2386, 2013.
LIN, P.; YANG, Z.-L.; GOCHIS, D. J.; YU, W.; MAIDMENT, D. R.; SOMOS-VALENZUELA, M. A.; DAVID, C. H. Implementation of a vector-based river network routing scheme in the community WRF-HYDRO modeling framework for flood discharge simulation. Environmental Modelling and Software, v. 107, p. 1–11, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2018.05.018, 2018.
PAROLIN, P.; LUCAS, C.; PIEDADE, M. T. F.; WITTMANN, F. Flood-tolerant trees of Amazonian floodplains. Revista Pesquisas Botânica, v. 61, p. 7–38, 2010.
SMALLMAN, T. L.; MONCRIEFF, J. B.; WILLIAMS, M. WRFv3.2-SPAv2: development and validation of a coupled ecosystem–atmosphere model, scaling from surface fluxes of CO2 and energy to atmospheric profiles. Geoscientific Model Development, v. 6, p. 1079–1093, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-6-1079-2013, 2013.
SUN, X.; HOLMES, H. A.; OSIBANJO, O. O.; SUN, Y.; IVEY, C. E. Evaluation of Surface Fluxes in the WRF Model: Case Study for Farmland in Rolling Terrain. Atmosphere, v. 8, p. 1–23, https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos8100197, 2017.
WANG, W.; BRUYÈRE, C.; DUDA, M.; DUDHIA, J.; GILL, D.; KAVULICH, M.; KEENE, K.; LIN, H.-C.; MICHALAKES, J.; RIZVI, S.; ZHANG, X.; BERNER, J.; FOSSELL, K. WRF ARW Version 3 Modeling System User’s Guide. Boulder, Colorado (EUA), 2016. 408 p.
WEHBE, Y.; TEMIMI, M.; WESTON, M.; CHAOUCH, N.; BRANCH, O.; SCHWITALLA, T.; WULFMEYER, V.; ZHAN, X.; LIU, J.; MANDOUS, A. A. Analysis of an extreme weather event in a hyper-arid region using WRF-Hydro coupling, station, and satellite data. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, v. 19, p. 1129–1149, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-19-1129-2019, 2019.
How to Cite
To access the DECLARATION AND TRANSFER OF COPYRIGHT AUTHOR’S DECLARATION AND COPYRIGHT LICENSE click here.
Ethical Guidelines for Journal Publication
The Ciência e Natura journal is committed to ensuring ethics in publication and quality of articles.
Conformance to standards of ethical behavior is therefore expected of all parties involved: Authors, Editors, Reviewers, and the Publisher.
Authors: Authors should present an objective discussion of the significance of research work as well as sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the experiments. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable. Review Articles should also be objective, comprehensive, and accurate accounts of the state of the art. The Authors should ensure that their work is entirely original works, and if the work and/or words of others have been used, this has been appropriately acknowledged. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Authors should not submit articles describing essentially the same research to more than one journal. The corresponding Author should ensure that there is a full consensus of all Co-authors in approving the final version of the paper and its submission for publication.
Editors: Editors should evaluate manuscripts exclusively on the basis of their academic merit. An Editor must not use unpublished information in the editor's own research without the express written consent of the Author. Editors should take reasonable responsive measures when ethical complaints have been presented concerning a submitted manuscript or published paper.
Reviewers: Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should be conducted objectively, and observations should be formulated clearly with supporting arguments, so that Authors can use them for improving the paper. Any selected Reviewer who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the Editor and excuse himself from the review process. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.