ANOMALOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF FLUORINE IN GROUNDWATERS
Keywords:Hypotheses. Review. GAS. Advances in knowledge.
AbstractIt is believed that concentrations up to 1.5 mg/L of fluorine in the waters are beneficial to human health in the prevention of dental caries in children. But higher values would be harmful and cause stains on teeth, dental fluorosis, and deformed bones. Through the literature review, it was noted that anomalous values of this element occur in crystalline, porous and karstic aquifers. The aim of this paper was to present an evolution of knowledge regarding fluoride anomalous concentrations, performing a case study on the Guarani Aquifer System/GAS. Locally the groundwater has high fluoride concentration in many Brazilian states above standards for human consumption. Many hypotheses were seeking to clarify the origin of these concentrations. However, there is still no consensus among researchers. There is a good relationship with sodic waters character, sulfated and/or chlorinated. Recent studies suggest an association with more saline, thermal waters in confined areas, associating the origin of fluoride to pre–SGA formations, carriers of salts and sulfated minerals. The most consensual hypothesis suggests the existence of mixtures with saline deep waters, indicating that there are areas where vertical flows predominate in relation to the horizontal at the GAS associated this natural process with the ion exchange capacity of the clay minerals.
How to Cite
To access the DECLARATION AND TRANSFER OF COPYRIGHT AUTHOR’S DECLARATION AND COPYRIGHT LICENSE click here.
Ethical Guidelines for Journal Publication
The Ciência e Natura journal is committed to ensuring ethics in publication and quality of articles.
Conformance to standards of ethical behavior is therefore expected of all parties involved: Authors, Editors, Reviewers, and the Publisher.
Authors: Authors should present an objective discussion of the significance of research work as well as sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the experiments. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable. Review Articles should also be objective, comprehensive, and accurate accounts of the state of the art. The Authors should ensure that their work is entirely original works, and if the work and/or words of others have been used, this has been appropriately acknowledged. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Authors should not submit articles describing essentially the same research to more than one journal. The corresponding Author should ensure that there is a full consensus of all Co-authors in approving the final version of the paper and its submission for publication.
Editors: Editors should evaluate manuscripts exclusively on the basis of their academic merit. An Editor must not use unpublished information in the editor's own research without the express written consent of the Author. Editors should take reasonable responsive measures when ethical complaints have been presented concerning a submitted manuscript or published paper.
Reviewers: Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should be conducted objectively, and observations should be formulated clearly with supporting arguments, so that Authors can use them for improving the paper. Any selected Reviewer who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the Editor and excuse himself from the review process. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.