BIOMASSA, CRESCIMENTO E RESPOSTAS ECOFISIOLÓGICAS DE PLANTAS JOVENS DE Bertholletia excelsa BONPL. SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE IRRADIÂNCIA

Cristiane Santos do Carmo Ribeiro de Souza, Victor Alexandre Hardt Ferreira dos Santos, Marciel José Ferreira, José Francisco de Carvalho Gonçalves

Resumo


A castanheira-da-amazônia (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl.) é uma espécie exigente de luz, pois em floresta nativa, a espécie depende da formação de clareiras para alcançar o tamanho reprodutivo e em plantios florestais demonstra rápido crescimento inicial quando exposta a altos níveis de irradiância. No entanto, os aspectos ecofisiológicos dessa espécie sob condições contrastantes de irradiância não foram investigados. Nesse estudo, além das características de crescimento, objetivou-se analisar pela primeira vez o grau de plasticidade das respostas ecofisiológicas de Bertholletia excelsa quando submetida a ambientes de irradiância contrastantes. Plantas jovens de Bertholletia excelsa foram cultivadas em três condições de irradiância: baixa (20-300 µmol m-2 s-1), moderada (800-1000 µmol m-2 s-1) e alta (1900-2100 µmol m-2 s-1). Foram analisadas características de crescimento, trocas gasosas, teores de pigmentos cloroplastídicos e, no fim do experimento, o acúmulo e partição de biomassa. Plantas jovens de Bertholletia excelsa demonstraram maior acúmulo de biomassa, crescimento e fotossíntesequando expostas aos ambientes de moderada e alta irradiância. A condição de baixa irradiância estimulou maior partição de biomassa para a parte aérea em contraposição ao sistema radicular e maior concentração foliar de pigmentos cloroplastídicos. Bertholletia excelsa possui plasticidade fisiológica sob condições contrastantes de irradiância, sendo o maior crescimento e acúmulo de biomassa, em ambientes de moderada e alta irradiância, promovidos pelo melhor desempenho fotossintético, ao passo que o balanço positivo de carbono sob baixa irradiância é assegurado pelo investimento em estruturas de interceptação e captação de energia.


Palavras-chave


Castanheira-da-amazônia; trocas gasosas; crescimento inicial; espécie arbórea tropical.

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Referências


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509827736

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