Levels of exhaled carbon monoxide in steakhouse workers in a town in the Brazilian Legal Amazon region
Keywords:Carbon monoxide, Occupational groups, Occupational exposure, Occupational health, Air pollution
Occupational exposure to smoke from commercial kitchens such as steakhouses may be associated with an increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and an acute reversible decrease in pulmonary functional capacity, and exposure to coal smoke is a risk factor for the development of respiratory diseases. The objetive of study was evaluate the levels of exhaled carbon monoxide (COex) and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in steakhouse workers. This is an observational, longitudinal and prospective study in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The total of 29 professionals working in steakhouses participated in the study. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, work environment characteristics, life habits and respiratory symptoms were extracted from questionnaires. COex and COHb levels were measured before exposure and every hour up to a 4 hour exposure period. Twenty-nine workers participated, with a predominance of females (55.2%), with a mean age of 36.40±11.49 years. It was observed that 18 (62%) of the workers had respiratory symptoms. COex and COHb levels were elevated after 4 hour exposure (p<0.05), but within acceptable parameters. COex and COHb levels are elevated in a short period of time to occupational exposure to steakhouse activities.
AL, B. et al. The effect of chronic carbon-monoxide exposure on the peak expiratory flow values of grill-kebab chefs. Saudi Med J., [S.l.], v. 30, n. 6, p. 788-792, 2009.
AL, B. et al. The effect of chronic carbon monoxide exposure on hs-CRP, CIM thickness and PEF in furnacemen. Turk J Biochem. [S.l.], v. 37, n.1, p. 42-7, 2012. DOI: 10.5505/tjb.2012.65365.
AMÂNCIO, C. T.; NASCIMENTO L. F. C. Asthma and ambient pollutants: a time series study. Rev Assoc Med Bras. [S.l.], v. 58, n.3, p. 302-7, 2012. DOI: 10.1590/S0104-42302012000300009.
BADYDA, A. J. et al. Inhalation Exposure to PM-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Released from Barbecue Grills Powered by Gas, Lump Charcoal, and Charcoal Briquettes. Adv Exp Med Bio., [S.l.], v. 1023, p. 11-27, 2018. DOI: 10.1007/5584_2017_51.
BAUER, I.; PANNEN, B. H. J. Bench-to-bedside review: carbon monoxide--from mitochondrial poisoning to therapeutic use. Crit Care, [S.l.], v. 13, n. 4, p. 220. 2009. DOI: 10.1186/cc7887.
BELANGER, K.; TRICHE, E. W. Indoor combustion and asthma. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. [S.l.], v. 28, n. 3, p. 507-19, 2009. DOI: 10.1016/j.iac.2008.03.011.
BLASKIEVICZ, P. H. et al. Atmospheric Pollution Exposure Increases Disease Activity of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Int J Environ Res Public Health., [S.l.], v. 17, n. 6, p. 1984, 2020. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17061984.
BONJOUR, S. et al. Solid fuel use for household cooking: country and regional estimates for 1980–2010. Environ Health Perspect., [S.l], v. 121, n. 7, p. 784-90, 2013. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1205987.
BRUCE, N.; PEREZ-PADILLA, R.; ALBALAK, R. Indoor air pollution in developing countries: a major environmental and public health challenge. Bull World Health Organ., [S.l.], v. 78, n. 9, p. 1078-92, 2000.
CHEN, L. J.; XING, L.; HAN, L. Renewable energy from agro-residues in China: Solid biofuels and biomass briquetting technology. Renew. Sustain Energy Rev., [S.l.], v.13, n. 9, p. 2689-2695, 2009. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2009.06.025.
CLAYTON, C. E. et al. Inhaled carbon monoxide and hyperoxic lung injury in rats. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol., [S.l.], v. 281, n. 4, p. L949-L957, 2001. DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.2001.281.4.L949.
DAWSON, T. M.; SNYDER, S. H. Gases as biological messengers: nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in the Brain. J Neurosci., [S.l.], v. 14, n. 9, p. 5147-5159, 1994. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.14-09-05147.1994.
DIETTE, G. B. et al. Obstructive lung disease and exposure to burning biomass fuel in the indoor environment. Glob Heart., [S.l.], v. 7, n. 3, p. 265-70, 2012. DOI: 10.1016/j.gheart.2012.06.016.
DIKME, O.; DIKME, O.; TOPACOGLU, H. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning as a Result of an Open-Air Barbecue Activity. J Emerg Trauma Care., [S.l.], v. 3, n. 3, p. 1-3, 2018.
FERNANDES, A. L.; STELMACH, R.; ALGRANTI, E. Occupacional asthma. J Bras Pneumol., [S.l.], v. 32, n. 1, p. 27-34, 2006. DOI: 10.1590/S1806-37132006000800006.
GAVINIER, S.; NASCIMENTO, L. F. C. Air pollutants and hospital admissions due to stroke. Rev. Ambient. Água, [S.l.], v. 9, n. 3, p. 390-401, 2014. DOI: 10.4136/ambi-agua.1318.
HUANG, H. L.; LEE, W. G.; WU, F. S. Emissions of air pollutants from indoor charcoal barbecue. J Hazard Mater., [S.l.], v. 25, n. 302, p. 198-207, 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.09.048
JOHNSON, R. A.; KOZMA F.; COLOMBARI E. Carbon monoxide: from toxin to endogenous modulator of cardiovascular functions. Braz J Med Biol Res., [S.l.], v. 32, n. 1, p. 1-14, 1999. DOI: 10.1590/s0100-879x1999000100001
KABIR, E.; KIM, K. H.; YOON, H. O. Trace metal contents in barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products. J Hazard Mater., [S.l.], v. 185, n. (2-3), p. 1418-24, 2011. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.10.064.
KURMI, O. P.; LAM, K. B. H.; AYRES, J. G. Indoor air pollution and the lung in low-and medium-income countries. Eur Respir J., [S.l.], v. 40, n. 1, p. 239-54, 2012. DOI: 10.1183/09031936.00190211.
LACERDA, A.; LEROUX, T.; MORATA, T. Ototoxic effects of carbon monoxide exposure: a review. Pro-fono Revista de Atualização Cientifica., [S.l.], v. 17, n. 3, p. 403-12, 2005. DOI: 1590/S0104-56872005000300014.
LANGBEIN, J.; PETERS, J.; VANCE, C. Outdoor cooking prevalence in developing countries and its implication for clean cooking policies. Environ. Res. Lett., [S.l.], v. 12, n. 11, p. 1-12, 2017. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/aa8642.
LAWIN, H. et al. Exhaled carbon monoxide: a non-invasive biomarker of short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution. BMC Public Health., [S.l.], v. 17, n. 320, p. 1-5, 2017. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-017-4243-6.
MAHEMBE, A.; MKOMA, S. L.; KINAMBO, J. L. Cooking fuels and respiratory symptoms in kitchen workers in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. Int J Biol Chem Sci., [S.l.], v. 4, n. 4, p. 976-983, 2010. DOI: 10.4314/ijbcs.v4i4.63037
MARQUES, R, et al. Composição química de águas de chuva em áreas tropicais continentais, Cuiabá-MT: aplicação do sistema clima urbano (S.C.U). Revista do Departamento de Geografia., [S.l.], v. 20, p. 63-75, 2010. DOI: 10.7154/RDG.2010.0020.0005
MARTIN, W. J. et al. Public health. A major environmental cause of death. Science., [S.l.], v. 334, n. 6053, p. 180-181, 2011. DOI: 10.1126/science.1213088.
MARTINS, L. C. et al. Poluição atmosférica e atendimentos por pneumonia e gripe em São Paulo, Brasil [Air pollution and emergency room visits due to pneumonia and influenza in São Paulo, Brazil]. Rev Saúde Pública., [S.l.], v. 36, n. 1, p. 88-94, 2002. DOI: 0.1590/S0034-89102002000100014.
MILLER, M. R. et al. Standardisation of spirometry. Eur Respir J., [S.l.], v. 26, n. 2, p. 319-338, 2005. DOI: 10.1183/09031936.05.00034805.
MORAES, A. C. L. et al. Wheezing in children and adolescents living next to a petrochemical plant in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. J Pediat., [S.l.], v. 86, n. 4, p. 337-44, 2010. DOI: 10.2223/JPED.2020.
NAEHER, L. P. et al. Woodsmoke health effects: a review. Inhal Toxicol., [S.l.], v. 19, n. 1, p. 67-106, 2007. PMID: 17127644. DOI: 10.1080/08958370600985875.
NEGHAB, M, et al. Exposure to cooking fumes and acute reversible decrement in lung functional capacity. Int J Occup Environ Med. [S.l.], v.8, n.4, p:207-16, 2017. DOI: 10.15171/ijoem.2017.1100.
PEREIRA, C. A.; SATO, T.; RODRIGUES, S. C. New reference values for forced spirometry in white adults in Brazil. J Bras Pneumol., [S.l.], v. 33, n. 4, p. 397-406, 2007. DOI:10.1590/s1806-37132007000400008.
QUINN, A. K. et al. Association of Carbon Monoxide exposure with blood pressure among pregnant women in rural Ghana: Evidence from GRAPHS. Int J Hyg Environ Health., [S.l.], v. 219, n. 2, p. 176-183, 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.10.004.
REHFUESS, E.; BRUCE, N.; SMITH, K. Solid Fuel Use: Health Effect. In: Nriagu, J. O. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, v 5. Burlington: Elsevier, 2011. 150161p.
SALÍCIO, M. A. et al. Environmental variables and levels of exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin in elderly people taking exercise. Cien Saude Colet., [S.l.], v. 21, n. 4, p. 1023-1032, 2016. DOI: 10.1590/1413-81232015214.14502015.
SANTOS, F. M. M. et al. Análise da variação higrotérmica ocasionada pela influência da ocupação do solo na cidade de Cuiabá-MT. Rev. Elet. em Gestão, Educação e Tecnologia Ambiental., [S.l.], v. 9, n. 9, p. 1932-45, 2013.
SANTOS, U. P. et al. Emprego da determinação de monóxido de carbono no ar exalado para a detecção do consumo de tabaco [Use of breath carbon monoxide as an indicator of smoking status]. J Bras Pneumol., [S.l.], v. 27, n. 5, p. 231-36, 2001. DOI: 10.1590/S0102-35862001000500001.
SIQUEIRA, M. E. P. B. et al. Valores de referência para carboxihemoglobina [Reference values for carboxyhemoglobin]. Rev. Saúde Pública., [S.l.], v. 31, n. 6, p. 618-23, 1997. DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101997000700010.
TANER, S.; PELEY, B.; PEKEY, H. Fine particulate matter in the indoor air of barbeque restaurants: elemental compositions, sources and health risks. Sci Total Environ., [S.l.], v. 454, n. 55, p. 79-87, 2013. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.03.018.
UNDERNER, M.; PEIFFER, G. Interpretation of exhaled CO levels in studies on smoking. Rev Mal Respir., [S.l.], v. 27, n. 4, p. 293–300, 2010. DOI: 10.1016/j.rmr.2009.09.004.
VENKATARAMAN, C.; RAO, G. U. Emission Factors of Carbon Monoxide and Size-Resolved Aerosols from Biofuel Combustion. Environ Sci Technol., [S.l.], v. 35, n. 10, p. 2100-2107, 2001. DOI: 10.1021/es001603d.
WONG, T. W. et al. Respiratory health and lung function in Chinese restaurant kitchen workers. Occup Environ Med., [S.l.], v. 68, n. 10, p. 746-52, 2011. DOI: 10.1136/oem.2010.059378.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Household air pollution and health: WHO. [S.l.], 2018. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/household-air-pollution-and-health. Accessed in 2019 (Dec 28).
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Public health, environmental and social determinants of health (PHE): WHO, 2016. Available from: http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases. Accessed in 2017 (Feb 15).
WU, L.; WANG, R. Carbon monoxide: endogenous production, physiological functions, and pharmacological applications. Pharmacol Rev., [S.l.], v. 57, n. 4, p. 585-630, 2005. DOI: 10.1124/pr.57.4.3.
- 2022-09-23 (2)
- 2022-09-03 (1)
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Ciência e Natura
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
To access the DECLARATION AND TRANSFER OF COPYRIGHT AUTHOR’S DECLARATION AND COPYRIGHT LICENSE click here.
Ethical Guidelines for Journal Publication
The Ciência e Natura journal is committed to ensuring ethics in publication and quality of articles.
Conformance to standards of ethical behavior is therefore expected of all parties involved: Authors, Editors, Reviewers, and the Publisher.
Authors: Authors should present an objective discussion of the significance of research work as well as sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the experiments. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable. Review Articles should also be objective, comprehensive, and accurate accounts of the state of the art. The Authors should ensure that their work is entirely original works, and if the work and/or words of others have been used, this has been appropriately acknowledged. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Authors should not submit articles describing essentially the same research to more than one journal. The corresponding Author should ensure that there is a full consensus of all Co-authors in approving the final version of the paper and its submission for publication.
Editors: Editors should evaluate manuscripts exclusively on the basis of their academic merit. An Editor must not use unpublished information in the editor's own research without the express written consent of the Author. Editors should take reasonable responsive measures when ethical complaints have been presented concerning a submitted manuscript or published paper.
Reviewers: Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should be conducted objectively, and observations should be formulated clearly with supporting arguments, so that Authors can use them for improving the paper. Any selected Reviewer who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the Editor and excuse himself from the review process. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.