Como distinguir representações de memória individuais de longo prazo? Uma jornada histórica e crítica

Marina Trakas

Resumo


A memória não é um fenômeno unitário. Mesmo entre o grupo de representações de memória individuais de longo prazo (conhecidas na literatura como memória declarativa), parece haver uma distinção entre dois tipos de memória: memória de eventos experimentados pessoalmente (memória episódica) e memória de fatos ou conhecimentos sobre o mundo (memória semântica). Embora essa distinção pareça muito intuitiva, não é tão claro em qual característica ou conjunto de características inter-relacionadas reside a diferença. Neste artigo, apresento os diferentes critérios propostos na literatura filosófica e científica para dar conta dessa distinção: (1) o veículo de representação; (2) a gramática do verbo “lembrar”; (3) a causa da memória; (4) o conteúdo da memória; e (5) a fenomenologia das representações da memória. Embora alguns critérios pareçam mais plausíveis que outros, mostro que todos são problemáticos e nenhum deles realmente cumpre seu objetivo. Em seguida, descrevo brevemente um critério diferente, o critério afetivo, que parece uma linha de pesquisa promissora para tentar entender os fundamentos dessa distinção.

Palavras-chave


Tipos de memória; Memória declarativa; Memória episódica; Memória semântica; Memória autobiográfica

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5902/2179378639849

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