Drought events analysis and spatial distribution for the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Paraiba, Brazil





Magnetic separation, Graphene, Adsorption


The application of the Standardized Precipitation Index was established for 13 rain gauge stations selected in the catchment sub-basins of number 37 and 38, which correspond to the area of the states Rio Grande do Norte and Paraiba. The monthly rainfall data of the stations was analyzed, and the missing data was filled by simple linear regression. A 6-month time scale was adopted for the method; the data was organized in a moving cumulative distribution of precipitation and applied to the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). In the application of the method, the cumulative values are processed into a normal distribution with the mean zero and variance one. That way, a drought event begins when the cumulative precipitation in the historical data series reaches an SPI value smaller than or equal to -1.00. Between 22 and 26 events for the stations of the sub-basin 37, and between 18 and 22 events for the stations of sub-basin 38 were identified. Medium-term tendencies were observed, with the occurrence of events every year or two, proving certain seasonality. The obtained values were then transformed into a return period of 20 years, and an isohyetal map was developed with the purpose to show the spatial variation of the event precipitation. By the outlined map, becomes evident an area of higher precipitation rates, situated on the coast along the states, and a drier region, located in the inland territory.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Bruno Henrique Toná Juliani, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR

Master Student of the Postgraduate Program in Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil

Cássia Rocha Pompeu, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Belgium

MSc. in Environmental Sanitation, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Belgium

Cristhiane Michiko Passos Okawa, State University of Maringá, Maringá, PR

Phd in Environmental Sciences, Civil Engineering Department, State University of Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil


ANA – Brazilian National Water Agency. (2017). HidroWeb – Sistema de Informações Hidrológicas. URL: . Accessed in: June 2017.

Chow, V. T. (1964). Handbook of applied hydrology. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Destro, C. A. M.; Farias, P. C. A.; Lima, G. A. R. (2013). Aplicação do método de análise de espectro singular para preencher falhas de dados em séries temporais de precipitação acumulada mensal. 27o Brazilian Conference of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Goiânia, Brazil.

Gottschalk, L.; Yu, K.; Leblois, E.; Xiong, L. (2013). Statistics of Low flow: Theoretical derivation of the distribution of minimum streamflow series. Journal of Hydrology, v. 401, p. 204-219.

Kaviski, E. (1983). Vazões de estiagem em pequenas bacias hidrográficas do Estado de Santa Catarina. Simpósio Brasileiro de Hidrologia e Recursos Hídricos. ABRH, Florianópolis, Brazil, p. 43-67.

Kayano, M. T.; Andreoli, R. V. (2009). O clima da região Nordeste do Brasil. Em: Tempo e clima do Brasil, por Cavalcanti, I. F. A.; Ferreira, N. J.; Silva, M. G. A. J.; Silva Dias, M. A. F. Oficina de Textos, São Paulo, Brazil, p. 213-233.

Macedo, M. J. H.; Guedes, R. V. S.; Souza, F. A. S.; Dantas, F. R. C. (2010). Análise do índice padronizado de precipitação para o estado da Paraíba, Brasil. Ambi-Água, v. 5, n. 1. Taubaté, Brazil, p. 204-214.

McKee, T. B.; Doesken, N. J.; Kleist, J. (1993). Drought monitoring with multiple timescales. 8th Conference on Applied Climatology, Anaheim, California, United States.

Moura, A. D.; Shukla, J. (1981). On the dynamics of droughts in northeast Brazil: Observations, theory and numerical experiments with a general circulation model. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, v. 38, n. 12, p. 2653-2675.

Rahmat, S.; Jayarusiya, N.; Bhuiyan, M. 2015. Development of drought severity-duration-frequency curves in Victoria, Australia. Australian Journal of Water Resources, v. 19, n. 1, p. 31-42.

Sibut Gomide, F. L. (1976). Noções de Estatística e Probabilidades. Em: Hidrologia Básica, por Pinto, N. L. S.; Holtz, A. C. T.; Martins, J. A.; Sibut Gomide, F. L.Editora Edgard Blucher, São Paulo, Brazil, p. 205-278.

Stephens, M. A. (1974). EDF Statistics for Goodness of Fit and Some Comparisons. Journal of the American Statistical Association, v. 69, n. 374, p. 730-737.

Teodoro, P. E.; Guedes Correa, C. C.; Torres, F. E.; Oliveira Junior, J. F.; Silva Junior, C. A.; Gois, G.; Coll Delgado, R. (2015). Analysis of the Occurrence of Wet and Drought Periods Using Standardized Precipitation Index in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Journal of Agronomy, v. 14, p. 80-86.

Tsakiris, G; Pangalou, D.; Vangelis, H. (2007). Regional drought assessment based on the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI). Water Resources Management, v. 21, n. 5, p. 821-833.

WMO – World Meteorological Organization. (2012). Standardized Precipitation Index – User Guide. Geneva.




How to Cite

Juliani, B. H. T., Pompeu, C. R., & Okawa, C. M. P. (2019). Drought events analysis and spatial distribution for the states of Rio Grande do Norte and Paraiba, Brazil. Revista Eletrônica Em Gestão, Educação E Tecnologia Ambiental, 23, e3. https://doi.org/10.5902/2236117038523

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >> 

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.