• Viviane Da Costa Correia
  • Antonio Aprigio da Silva Curvelo
  • Karen Marabezi
  • Alessandra Etuko Feuzicana De Souza Almeida
  • Holmer Savastano Junior




cellulose, bamboo, organosolv pulping, ethanol.



Organosolv pulping is the clean chemical process of using organic solvents to aid in the removal of lignin and hemicellulose from lignocellulosic raw materials. This method provides facility for solvent recovery at the end of the process. In this work, it was to produce bamboo cellulosic pulp by the organosolv process evaluating different temperatures and reaction times, and the pulps were analyzed aiming their future application in the reinforcement of composites. The production of bamboo pulp by the organosolv process was studied varying the cooking conditions at 1, 2 and 3 h and 150, 170 and 190oC of temperature, in order to achieve the ideal conditions of yield, chemical and morphological characteristics of the pulp for its potential application in the reinforcement of composites. The best results for delignification (kappa number of 38), with relatively lower fiber degradation (viscosity of 625 cm3 g-1), aspect ratio of 40.4 and the index zero-span of 204 Nm g-1, were achieved for the pulping process at 190oC for 2 h. These pulping conditions can be considered as the more appropriate in the range of time intervals evaluated in this work. The higher mechanical strength and the lower incidence of morphological defects in the fiber (6.0% of curls and 10.6% of kinks) can demonstrate the potential of organosolv bamboo pulp as a reinforcing element.


Não há dados estatísticos.


ALEMDAR, A.; SAIN, M. Isolation and characterization of nanofibers from agricultural residues – Wheat straw and soy hulls. Bioresource Technology, v. 99, p. 1664-1671, 2008.

ALMEIDA, A. E. F. S. et al. Improved durability of vegetable fiber reinforced cement composite subject to accelerated carbonation at early age. Cement & Concrete Composites, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2013.05.001.

AZZINI, A. et al.Avaliação quantitativa da massa fibrosa e vazios em colmos de bambu. Bragantia, v. 49, n. 1, p. 141-146, 1990.

AZZINI, A.; GONDIM-TOMAZ, R. M. A. Extração de amido em cavacos de bambu tratados com solução diluída de hidróxido de sódio. Bragantia, v. 55, n. 2, p. 215-219, 1996.

AZIZ, S.; SARKANEN, K. Organosolv pulping – a review. Tappi Journal, v. 72, p. 169-175, 1989.

BRAATEN, K. R.; MOLTEBERG, D. A mathematical method for determining fiber wall thickness and fiber width. Tappi Journal, v. 3, p. 9-12, 2004.

BROWNING, B. L. Methods of Wood Chemistry. New York: Interscience Publishers, 1967.498 p.

CIARAMELLO, D. Bamboo as a raw material for the paper industry — Studies of three cooking processes with Bambusa tuldoides Munro. Bragantia, v. 29, p. 11-22, 1970.

CLARAMUNT, J. et al. The hornification of vegetable fibers to improve the durability of cement mortar composites. Cement & Concrete Composites, v. 33, p. 586-595, 2011.

COUTTS, R. S. P.; NI, Y. Autoclaved bamboo pulp fibre reinforced cement. Cement & Concrete Composites, v. 17, p. 99-106, 1995.

DE GROOT, B., VAN DAM, J. E. G.; VAN ‘TRIET, K. Alkaline pulping of hemp woody core: kinetic modeling of lignin, xylan and cellulose extraction and degradation. Holzforschung, v. 49, p. 332-342, 1995.

DUFF, S. J. B.; MURRAY, W. D. Bioconversion of forest products industry waste cellulosic to fuel ethanol: a review. Bioresource Technology, v. 55, p. 1-33, 1996.

EVANS, R. et al. Changes in cellulose crystallinity during kraft pulping. Comparison of infrared, X-ray diffraction and solid state NMR results. Holzforschung, v. 49, p. 498-504, 1995.

GÜMÜSKAYA, E.; USTA, M.; KIRCI, H. The effects of various pulping conditions on crystalline structure of cellulose in cotton linters. Polymer Degradation and Stability, v. 81, p. 559-564, 2003.

HERGERT, H. Developments in Organosolv Pulping – An Overview. In: YOUNG, R. A.; AKTHAR, M., Ed(s). Environmentally Friendly Technologies for Pulp and Paper Industry. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1998. p. 5-67.

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION. ISO. 2004. ISO 302: Pulps – Determination of Kappa number.

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION. 1974. ISO 624: Pulps - Determination of dichloromethane soluble matter.

JOAQUIM, A. P. et al. Sisal organosolv pulp as reinforcement for cement based composites. Materials Research, v. 12, p. 305-314, 2009.

KHEDARI, J.; CHAROEMVAI, S.; HIRUANLABH, J. New insulating particle boards from durian peel and coconut coir. Journal of Building and Environment, v. 38, p. 435-441, 2003.

LI, M. et al. Formic acid based organosolv pulping of bamboo (Phyllostachys acuta): Comparative characterization of the dissolved lignins with milled wood lignin. Chemical Engineering Journal, v. 179, p. 80-89, 2012.

LEVLIN, J. E.; SÖDERHJEM, L. Pulp and paper testing. Papermaking Science and Technology Series. Finnish Paper Engineers ‘Association: Helsinki, Finland. 1999. v. 17. 288 p.

LÓPEZ, F. et al.Leucaena diversifolia a new raw material for paper production by soda-ethanol pulping process.Chemical Engineering Research and Design, v. 88, p. 1–9, 2010.

MOHR, B. J.; NANKO, H.; KURTIS, K. E. Durability of Kraft pulp fiber-cement composites to wet/dry cycling. Cement & Concrete Composites, v. 27, p. 435-448, 2005.

PACHECO-TORGAL, F.; JALALI, S. Cementitious building materials reinforced with vegetable fibres. A review. Construction Building Materials, v. 25, p. 575-581, 2011.

PANTHAPULAKKAL, S.; ZERESHKIAN, M.; SAIN, M. Preparation and characterization of wheat straw fibers for reinforcing application in injection molded thermoplastic composites, Bioresource Technology, v. 97, p. 265-272, 2006.

PASQUINI, D. et al. Surface esterification of cellulose fibres: processing and characterisation of low-density polyethylene/cellulose fibres composites. Composites Science and Technology, v. 68, p. 193-201, 2008.

PYE, E. K; LORA, J. H. The Alcell process, a proven alternative to kraft pulping. Tappi Journal, v.74, p. 991-996, 1991.

RUIZ, H. A. et al. Development and characterization of an environmentally friendly process sequence (Auto hydrolysis and Organosolv) for wheat straw delignification. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, v. 164, p. 629-641, 2011.

RUZENE, D. S.; GONÇALVES, A. R. Ethanol/Water pulp enzymatic pretreatment: Chemical and FTIR-PCA analyses. Chemical Papers, v. 61, p. 472-476, 2007.

RUZENE, D. S.; GONÇALVES, A. R. Effect of dose of xylanase on bleachability of sugarcane bagasse ethanol/water pulps. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, v. 105, p. 769-774, 2003.

SAIN, M.; PANTHAPULAKKAL, S. Bioprocess preparation of wheat straw fibers and their characterization. Industrial Crops and Products, v. 23, p. 1-8, 2006.

SCANDINAVIAN PULP TEST STANDARDS. SCAN. 1998. SCAN-CM 15:88: Viscosity in cupri-ethylenediamine (CED) solution. Stockholm.

SEGAL, L. et al. An empirical method for estimating the degree of crystallinity of native cellulose using X-ray difractometer. Textile Research Journal, v. 29, p. 786-794, 1959.

SENA-MARTINS, G; ALMEIDA -VARA, E.; DUARTE, J. C. Eco-friendly new products from enzymatically modified industrial lignins. Industrial crops and products, v. 27,p. 189-195, 2008.

SHATALOV, A. A.; PEREIRA, H. Arundo donax L. reed: New perspectives for pulping and bleaching-3. Ethanol-reinforced alkaline pulping. Tappi Journal, v. 3, n. 2, p. 27-31, 2004.

SHATALOV, A. A; PEREIRA, H. Arundo donax L. reed: New perspectives for pulping and bleaching. 5. Ozone-based TCF bleaching of organosolv pulps. Bioresource Technology, v. 99, n. 3, p. 472-478, 2008.

SIDIRAS, D.; KOUKIOS, E. Simulation of acid-catalysed organosolv fractionation of wheat straw. Bioresource Technology, v. 94, p. 91-98, 2004.

SRIDACH, W. The environmentally benign pulping process of non-wood fibers. Suranaree Journal of Science and Technology, v. 17, p. 105-123, 2010.

STEWART, D. Lignin as a base material for materials applications: Chemistry, application and economics. Industrial crops and products, v. 27, p. 202-207, 2008.

SUNDAR, S. T.; SAIN, M. M.; OKSMAN, K. Characterization of microcrystalline cellulose and cellulose long fiber modified by iron salt. Carbohydrate Polymers, v. 80, p. 35-43, 2010.

TECHNICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY. TAPPI. 1995. Tappi Test Methods, T 273 pm-95: Wet zero-span tensile strength of pulp. Tappi Press: Atlanta.

TECHNICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY. TAPPI. 1995. Tappi Test Methods, T 231 cm-96: Zero-span breaking strength of pulp (dry zero-span tensile). Tappi Press: Atlanta, 1996.

TECHNICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY. TAPPI. 1995.Tappi Test Methods, T 236 om-99: Kappa number of pulp. Tappi Press: Atlanta, 1999.

TECHNICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY. TAPPI. 1995.Tappi Test Methods, T 222 om-98: Acid-insoluble lignin in wood and pulp. Tappi Press: Atlanta, 1998.

TECHNICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY. TAPPI. 1995.Tappi Test Methods, T 19 m-54: Holocellulose in Wood. Tappi Press: Atlanta, 1954.

TECHNICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY. TAPPI. 1995. Tappi Test Methods, T 203 cm-99: Alpha-, beta- and gamma-cellulose in pulp. Tappi Press: Atlanta 1999.

TONOLI, G. H. D. et al. Eucalyptus pulp fibres as alternative reinforced to engineered cement-based composites. Industrial Crops and Products, v. 31, p. 225-232, 2010.

TREPANIER, R. J. Automatic fiber length and shape measurement by image analysis. Tappi Journal, v. 81, p. 152-154, 1998.

VAN SOEST, P. J. Development of a comprehensive system of feed analysis and its application to forage. Journal of Animal Science, v. 26, p. 119-128, 1967.

VU, T. H. M.; PAKKANEN, H.; ALÉN, R. Delignification of bamboo (Bambusa procera acher) Part 1. Kraft pulping and the subsequent oxygen delignification to pulp with a low kappa number. Industrial Crops and Products, v. 19, p. 49-57, 2004.

WAMBUA, P.; IVENS, J.; VERPOEST, I. Natural fibers: can they replace glass in fiber reinforced plastics? Composites Science and Technology, v. 63, p. 1259-1264, 2003.

YAWALATA, D.; PASZNER, L. Cationic effect in high concentration alcohol organosolv pulping: The next generation biorefinery. Holzforschung, v. 58, 7-13, 2004.

ZERONIAN, S. H.; BUSCHLE-DILLER, G. Enhancing the reactivity and strength of cotton fibers. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, v. 45, p. 967-979, 1992.




Como Citar

Correia, V. D. C., Curvelo, A. A. da S., Marabezi, K., Almeida, A. E. F. D. S., & Savastano Junior, H. (2015). POLPA CELULÓSICA DE BAMBU PRODUZIDA PELO PROCESSO ETANOL/ÁGUA PARA APLICAÇÕES DE REFORÇO. Ciência Florestal, 25(1), 127–135. https://doi.org/10.5902/1980509817470




Artigos mais lidos pelo mesmo(s) autor(es)