Cyanotoxins removal from the water: a review
Palavras-chave:Sanitation, Environmental control, Environmental engineering, Water quality
ResumoThe aim of this work is to show the state-of-the-art about powdered activated carbon and cyanotoxins removal, normally used to avoid health problems in drinking water. The work is part of the PhD research of the second author. Brazilian government has one important law about the subject, named as ordinance 2.914, which provides procedures for water quality control and monitoring. In addition, the standards of portability. Problems caused by cyanotoxins are discussed as one the most dangerous for the public health. The problems linked with cyanobacteria for a long time have been neglected. Some of the problems caused for the presence of this toxins in the water are gastroenteritis, hepato-enteritis and other diseases of the liver and kidney, cancer, skin irritations, allergies, conjunctivitis, vision problems, muscle weakness, respiratory problems, asphyxia, seizures and in extreme cases death. Papers from different bases were consulted as materials in this research. The main bases were Scopus, Science Direct, and SciELO.
AL-SAMMAK, M. A; HOAGLAND, K. D; CASSADA, D; SNOW, D. D. Co-occurrence of the Cyanotoxins BMAA, DABA and Anatoxin-a in Nebraska Reservoirs, Fish, and Aquatic Plants. Toxins, Switzerland, v. 6, p. 488-508, Jan. 2014.
ANDRADE, R. R & GIROLDO, D. Limnological characterisation and phytoplankton seasonal variation in a subtropical shallow lake (Guaiba Lake, Brazil): a long-term study. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia, Rio Claro, v. 26, n. 4, p. 442-456, Oct./Dec. 2014.
AWWA – American Water Works Association. Water quality and treatment: a handbook on drinking water. In: Edzwald, J.K. (editor). Colorado: McGraw-Hill, 2010. 1.696p.
AWWA & ASCE – American Water Works Association & American Society of Civil Engineers. Water treatment plants design. Estados Unidos: AWWA/ASCE, 2005.
BARRETO, L. V; FRAGA, M. C; BARROS, F. M; ROCHA, F. A; AMORIM, J. S; CARVALHO, S. R; BONOMO, P; SILVA, D. P. Relation between flow and water quality in a river section. Revista Ambiente & Água, Taubaté, v. 19, n. 1, p. 118-129, Jan./Mar. 2014.
BARRINGTON, D. J.; GHADOUANI, A.; IVEY, G. N. Cyanobacterial and microcystins dynamics following the application of hydrogen peroxide to waste stabilisation ponds. Hydrology And Earth System Sciences, v. 15, p. 2097-2105, May. 2013.
BARTIKO, D & JULIO, D. M. Construction and use of coagulation diagrams as a tool for continuous monitoring of flocculation in water supply. Revista Ambiente & Água, Taubaté, v. 10, n. 1, p. 71-81, Jan./Mar. 2015 Epub Mar-2015.
BERTOSSI, A. P. A; CECÍLIO, R. A; NEVES, M. A; GARCIA, G. O. Water quality in watersheds with different soil cover in southern Espírito Santo. Revista Árvore, Viçosa, v. 37, n. 1, p. 107-117, Jan./Feb. 2013.
BI, F; ZHAO, H; ZHANG, L; YE, Q; CHEN, H; GAO, C. Discussion on calculation of maximum water recovery in nanofiltration system. Discussion on calculation of maximum water recovery in nanofiltration system. Desalination, USA, v. 332, p.142-146, Jan. 2014.
BITTENCOURT-OLIVEIRA, M. C.; HEREMAN, T. C.; ARAÚJO, M. K. C.; MACEDO-SILVA, I.; DIAS, C. T.; SASAKI, F. F. C.; MOURA, A. N. Phytotoxicity associated to microcystins: a review. Brazilian Journal of Biology, São Carlos-SP, v. 74, n. 4, p. 753-760, Nov. 2014 Epub Nov-2014.
BOUTILIER, M. S. H; LEE, J; CHAMBERS, V; VENKATESH, V; KARNIK, R. Water Filtration Using Plant Xylem. Plos One, USA, v. 9, Issue 2, p. 1-8, Feb. 2014.
BRAGA, G. G.; BECKER, V.; OLIVEIRA, J. N. P.; MENDONÇA JUNIOR, J. R.; BEZERRA, A. F. M.; TORRES, L. M.; GLAVÃO, A. M. F.; MATTOS, A. Influence of extended drought on water quality in tropical reservoirs in a semiarid region. Acta Limnologia Brasiliensia, Rio Claro, v. 27, n. 1, p. 15-23, Jan./Mar. 2015.
BRASIL. Ordinance nº 2.914, 12th December, 2011. Provides on the procedures of control and monitoring of the quality of water for human consumption and its standard of potability. Disponível em: <http://bvsms.saude.gov.br/bvs/saudelegis/gm/2011/prt2914_12_12_2011.html>. Access: January, 2017.
BRASIL. Ministry of Health. Health Surveillance Secretariat. Department of Environmental Health Surveillance and Worker's Health. Cyanobacteria / cyanotoxins: collection, preservation and analysis procedures. Ministry of Health, Secretariat of Health Surveillance, Department of Surveillance in Environmental Health and Worker's Health. - Brasília: Ministry of Health, 2015. 106 p.: il.
BRIDGEMAN, J; GULLIVER, P; ROE, J; BAKER, A. Carbon isotopic characterisation of dissolved organic matter during water treatment. Water Research, USA, v. 48, p. 119-125, Jan. 2014.
CAPOANE, V.; TIECHER, T.; SCHAEFER, G. L.; CIOTTI, L. H.; SANTOS, D. R. Transfer of nitrogen and phosphorus to surface waters in a watershed with agriculture and intensive livestock production in southern Brazil. Ciência Rural, Santa Maria, v. 45, n. 4, p. 647-650, abr. 2015 Epub 11-Nov-2014.
CATHERINE, Q.; SUSANNA, W.; ISIDORA, E-S.; MARK, H.; AURÉLIE, V.; JEAN-FRANÇOIS, H. A review of current knowledge on toxic benthic freshwater cyanobacteria e Ecology, toxin production and risk management. Water Research, USA, v. 47, p. 5464-5479, 2013.
COSTA, S. M.; APPEL, E.; MACEDO, C. F.; HUSZAR, V. L. M. Low water quality in tropical fishponds in southeastern Brazil. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Rio de Janeiro, v. 86, n. 3, p. 1181-1195, set. 2014.
DERLON, N; MIMOSO, J; KLEIN, T; KOETZSCH, S; MORGENROTH, E. Presence of biofilms on ultrafiltration membrane surfaces increases the quality of permeate produced during ultra-low pressure gravity-driven membrane filtration. Water Research, USA, v. 60, p. 164–173, Sept. 2014.
DONG, L; LIU, W; JIANG, R; WANG, Z. Physicochemical and porosity characteristics of thermally regenerated activated carbon polluted with biological activated carbon process. Bioresource Technology, USA, v. 171, p. 260–264, Nov. 2014.
ERBA, C. M; TANGERION, E. P; CARVALHO, S. L; ISIQUE, W. D. Removal of diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen and paracetamol in a biological filter followed by a biologically activated granular carbon filter. Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental, Rio de Janeiro, v. 17, n. 2, p. 137-142, Apr./Jun. 2012.
FAN, J.; HOBSON, P.; HO, L.; DALY, R.; BROOKES, J. The effects of various control and water treatment processes on themembrane integrity and toxin fate of cyanobacteria. Journal of Hazardous Materials-Elsevier, USA, v. 264, p. 313–322, Jan. 2014.
FRANCO, M; SILVA, G. K; PATERNIANI, J. E. S. Water treatment by multistage filtration system with natural coagulant from Moringa oleifera seeds. Engenharia Agrícola, Jaboticabal, v. 32, n. 5, p. 989-997, Sept./Oct. 2012.
GALANTI, L. N.; AMÉ, M. V.; WUNDERLIN, D. A. Accumulation and detoxification dynamic of cyanotoxins in the freshwater shrimp Palaemonetes argentines. Harmful Algae-Elsevier, USA, v. 27, p. 88-97, Jul. 2013.
GAMAGE, N. P & CHELLAM, S. Mechanisms of Physically Irreversible Fouling during Surface Water Microfiltration and Mitigation by Aluminum Electroflotation Pretreatment. Environmental Science and Technology, USA, v. 48, p. 1148–1157, Dec. 2013.
GILBERT, O; LEFÈVRE, B; FERNÁNDEZ, M; BERNAT, X; PARAIRA, M; PONS, M. Fractionation and removal of dissolved organic carbon in a full-scale granular activated carbon filter used for drinking water production. Water Research, USA, v. 47, Issue 8, p. 2821–2829, May. 2013.
HE, X.; CRUZ, A. A. L.; HISKIA, A.; KALOUDIS, T.; O’SHEA, K.; DIONYSIOU, D. D. Destruction of microcystins (cyanotoxins) by UV-254 nm-based direct photolysis and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): Influence of variable amino acids on the degradation kinetics and reaction mechanisms. Water Research, USA, v. 74, p. 227-238, May. 2015.
HO, L.; SAWADE, E.; NEWCOMBE, G. Biological treatment options for cyanobacteria metabolite removal – A review. Water Research, USA, v. 46, p. Issue. 5, p. 1536–1548, Ap. 2012.
JANCULA, D.; MIKULA, P.; MARSALEK, B.; RUDOLF, P.; POCHYLÝ, F. Selective method for cyanobacterial bloom removal: hydraulic jet cavitation experience. Aquaculture International, USA, v. 22, Issue. 2, p. 509-521, Ap. 2014.
JARDIM, F. A; VON SPERLING, E; JARDIM, B. F. M; ALMEIDA, K. C. B. Determinants of cyanobacterial blooms in the water of the Doce River, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental, Rio de Janeiro, v. 19, n. 3, p. 207-218, Jul./Sept. 2014.
JING, G; WANG, L; YU, H; AMER, W. A; ZHANG, L. Recent progress on study of hybrid hydrogels for water treatment. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, USA, v. 416, p. 86–94, Jan. 2013.
KAUFMAN, Y; GRINBERG, S; LINDER, C; HELDMAN, E; GILRON, J; SHEN, Y-X; KUMAR, M; LAMMERTINK, R. G. H; FREGER, V. Towards supported bolaamphiphile membranes for water filtration: Roles of lipid and substrate. Journal of Membrane Science, USA, v. 457, p. 50-61, May. 2014.
KEARNS, J. P; WELLBORN, L. S; SUMMERS, R. S; KNAPPE, D. R. U. 2,4-D adsorption to biochars: Effect of preparation conditions on equilibrium adsorption capacity and comparison with commercial activated carbon literature data. Water Research, USA, v. 62, p. 20–28, Oct. 2014.
KIM, B-H.; LEE, J-H.; HWANG, S-J. Removal of Cyanobacteria and Microcystin by Natural Plant-Mineral Combinations in Eutrophic Waters. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, USA, v. 90, p. 216-221, Feb. 2013.
KURIAMA, F.; KURODA, E. K.; GUERGOLETTO, K. B.; GARCIA, S.; NOBREGA, G. M. A.; TSUJI, K.; HARADA, K-I.; HIROOKA, E. Y. Potential of biodegradation of microcystins by microorganisms. Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental, Rio de Janeiro, v. 17, n. 2, p. 181-186, Ap./Jun. 2012.
LI, J.; SHIMIZU, K.; AKASAKO, H.; LU, Z.; AKIYAMA, S.; GOTO, M.; UTSUMI, M.; SUGIURA, N. Assessment of the factors contributing to the variations in microcystins biodegradability of the biofilms on a practical biological treatment facility. Bioresource Technology, USA, v. 175, p. 463-472, Jan. 2014.
LI, H & PAN, G. Enhanced and continued degradation of microcystins using microorganisms obtained through natural media. Journal of Microbiological Methods, v. 96, p. 73-80, Jan. 2014.
LI, H & PAN, G; MASEDA, H.; LU, Z.; UTSUMI, M.; ZHANG, Z.; SUGIURA, N. Investigations into the biodegradation of microcystin-LR mediated by the biofilm in wintertime from a biological treatment facility in a drinking-water treatment plant. Bioresource Technology, v. 106, p. 27-35, 2012.
LIU, Y.; WANG, F.; CHEN, X.; ZHANG, J.; GAO, B. Cellular responses and biodegradation of amoxicillin in Microcystis aeruginosa at different nitrogen levels. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, USA, v. 111, p. 138-145, Jan. 2015.
LOPES, F. B; ANDRADE, E. M; MEIRELES, A. C. M; BECKER, H; BATISTA, A. A. Assessment of the water quality in a large reservoir in semiarid region of Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, Campina Grande, v. 18, n. 4, p. 437-445, Ap. 2014.
MA, G.; PEI, H.; HU, W.; XU, X.; MA, C.; LI, X. The removal of cyanobacteria and their metabolites through anoxic biodegradation in drinking water sludge. Bioresource Technology, USA, v. 165, p. 191-198, Aug. 2014.
MACHADO, N. G.; NASSARDEN, D. C. S.; SANTOS, F.; BOAVENTURA, I. C. G.; PERRIER, G.; SOUZA, F. S. C.; MARTINS, E. L.; BIUDES, M. S. Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera) as water quality indicators along an environmental gradient in a neotropical urban stream. Revista Ambiente & Água, v. 10, n. 2, p. 298-309, abr./jun. 2015 Epub Abr-2015.
MEREL, S.; WALKER, D.; CHICANA, R.; SNYDER, S.; BAURÈS, E.; THOMAS, O. State of knowledge and concerns on cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxins. Environment International, v. 59, p. 303–327, Sept. 2013.
MINILLO, A.; FREITAS, S. C.; ISIQUE, W. D.; PRADO, H. F. A.; DIMITROV, M. R.; PAIXÃO, D. A. A.; LEMOS, E. G. M.; TANGERIONO, E. P. Biodegradação da hepatotoxina (D-Leu1)-microcistina-LR por bactérias presentes em filtros biológicos de carvão. Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental, Rio de Janeiro, v. 18, n. 3, p. 205-214, July/Sept. 2013.
NAM, S-W; CHOI, D-J; KIM, S-K; HER, N; ZOH, K-D. Adsorption characteristics of selected hydrophilic and hydrophobicmicropollutants in water using activated carbon. Journal of Hazardous Materials, USA, v. 270, p. 144–152, Ap. 2014.
OGASHAWARA, I; ZAVATTINI, J. A; TUNDISIC, J.G. The climatic rhythm and blooms of cyanobacteria in a tropical reservoir in São Paulo, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology, São Carlos, v. 74, n. 1, p. 72-78, Feb. 2014.
PANTELÍC, D.; SVIRCEV, Z.; SIMEUNOVIC, J.; VIDOVIC, V.;
TRAJKOVIC, I. Cyanotoxins: Characteristics, production and degradation routes in drinking water treatment with reference to the situation in Serbia. Chemosphere, USA, v. 91, p. 421-441, 2013.
PELAEZ, M.; BARUWATI, B.; VARMA, R. S.; LUQUE, R.; DIONYSIOU, D. D. Microcystin-LR removal from aqueous solutions using a magnetically separable N-doped TiO2 nanocomposite under visible light irradiation. Chemical Communications, UK, v.49, p.10118-10120, 2013.
PINHO, L. X.; AZEVEDO, J.; BRITO, A.; SANTOS, A.; TAMAGNINI, P.; VILAR, V. J. P.; VASCONCELOS, V. M.; BOAVENTURA, R. A. R. Effect of TiO2 photocatalysis on the destruction of Microcystis aeruginosa cells and degradation of cyanotoxins microcystin-LR and cylindrospermopsin. Chemical Engineering Journal – Elsevier, USA, v. 268, p. 144-152, May. 2015.
RASTOG, R. P.; SINHA, R. P.; INCHAROENSAKDI, A. The cyanotoxin-microcystins: current overview. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, USA, v. 13, Issue. 2, p. 215-249, Feb. 2014.
RESTANI, G. C & FONSECA, A. L. Effects of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strains (Woloszynska, 1912) Senayya & Subba Raju on the mobility of Daphnia laevis (Cladocera, Daphniidae). Brazilian Journal of Biology, São Carlos, v. 74, n. 1, p. 23-31, Feb. 2014.
RIVETTI, C.; GÓMEZ-CANELA, C.; LACORTE, S.; BARATA, S. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to characterise trace levels of cyanobacteria and dinoflagellate toxins in suspended solids and sediments. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, USA, v. 407, Issue 5, p. 1451-1462, Feb. 2015.
ROEGNER, A. F.; BRENA, B.; GONZÁLEZ-SAPIENZA, G.; PUCHNER, B. Microcystins in potable surface waters: toxic effects and removal strategies. Journal of Applied Toxicology, v. 34, p. 441-457, May. 2014.
ROMERO, L. G.; MONDARDO, R. I.; GRISCHEK, T. Removal of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins during lake bank filtration at Lagoa do Peri, Brazil. Clean Technologies And Environmental Policy, USA, v. 16, p. 1133-1143, Feb. 2014.
SANTOS, M. B; MESQUITA, M; TESTEZLAF, R. Application of wind tunnel in the evaluation of flow lines generated by crepins of sand filters. Engenharia Agrícola, Jaboticabal, v. 33, n. 3, p. 548-559, May/Jun. 2013.
SHAO, J.; LI, R.; LEPO, J. E.; GU, J-D. Potential for control of harmful cyanobacterial blooms using biologically derived substances: Problems and prospects. Journal of Environmental Management, v. 125, p. 149–155, Aug. 2013.
SILVA, S. C. A.; SERVI, A. C.; BONA, C.; PADIAL, A. A. Aquatic macrophyte community varies in urban reservoirs with different degrees of eutrophication. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia, Rio Claro, v. 26, n. 2, p. 129-142, Ap./Jun. 2014.
SILVA, G. G; NAVAL, L. P; DI BERNARDO, L; DANTAS, A. D. B. Treatment of reservoir water by double filtration, oxidation and adsorption on granular activated carbon. Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental, Rio de Janeiro, v. 17, n. 1, p. 71-80, Jan./Mar. 2012.
SORLINI, S; GIALDINI, F; COLLIVIGNARELLI, C. Removal of cyanobacterial cells and Microcystin-LR from drinking water using a hollow fiber microfiltration pilot plant. Desalination, USA, v. 309, p. 106–112, Jan. 2013.
TIAN, J; LU, J; ZHANG, Y; LI, J-C; SUN, L-C; HU, Z-L. Microbial Community Structures and Dynamics in the O3/BAC Drinking Water Treatment Process. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, USA, v. 11, p. 6281–6290, Jun. 2014.
VLAD, S.; ANDERSON, W. B.; PELDSZUS, S.; HUCK, P. M. Removal of the cyanotoxin anatoxin-a by drinking water treatment processes: a review. Journal of Water and Health, v. 12, p. 601-617, Dec. 2014.
WANG, S; LIU, C; LI, Q. Impact of polymer flocculants on coagulation microfiltration of surface water. Water Research, USA, v. 47, Issue. 13, p. 4538–4546, Sep. 2013.
WU, S.; DUAN, N.; ZHANG, H.; WANG, Z. Simultaneous detection of microcysin-LR and okadaic acid using a dual fluorescence resonance energy transfer aptasensor. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, USA, v. 407, Issue 5, p. 1303-1312, Feb. 2015.
ZHANG, H; YANG, L; YU, Z; HUANG, Q. Inactivation of Microcystis aeruginosa by DC glow discharge plasma: Impacts on cell integrity, pigment contents and microcystins Degradation. Journal of Hazardous Materials, USA, v. 268, p. 33–42, Mar. 2014.
Ethical guidelines for journal publication
The REMOA is committed to ensuring ethics in publication and quality of articles.
Conformance to standards of ethical behavior is therefore expected of all parties involved: Authors, Editors, Reviewers, and the Publisher.
Authors: Authors should present an objective discussion of the significance of research work as well as sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the experiments. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable. Review articles should also be objective, comprehensive, and accurate accounts of the state of the art. The authors should ensure that their work is entirely original works, and if the work and/or words of others have been used, this has been appropriately acknowledged. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. Authors should not submit articles describing essentially the same research to more than one journal. The corresponding author should ensure that there is a full consensus of all co-authors in approving the final version of the paper and its submission for publication.
Editors: Editors should evaluate manuscripts exclusively on the basis of their academic merit. An editor must not use unpublished information in the editor's own research without the express written consent of the author. Editors should take reasonable responsive measures when ethical complaints have been presented concerning a submitted manuscript or published paper.
Reviewers: Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviews should be conducted objectively, and observations should be formulated clearly with supporting arguments, so that authors can use them for improving the paper. Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.