Coopetition in internationalization of wineries in Southern Brazil with the support of formal institutions

Jefferson Marlon Monticelli, Silvio Luís de Vasconcellos, Ivan Lapuente Garrido


This study analyses the coopetition strategy adopted by wineries in Southern Brazil with the support of local formal institutions to promote their internationalization. A multiple case study with 21 interviews with wineries and formal institutions of the industry was carried out. We used the discourse analysis based on the following categories: industry characterization, national and international markets, internationalization process, and institutional environment. The interpretations regarding the Integrated Sectorial Project (ISP) Wines of Brasil are shown. Despite its relevance, not all those involved have joined the project, because it promotes the internationalization unevenly through the competitive advantage while enhancing the differences between the wineries.  The main contributions are expanding the knowledge about coopetition by understanding the role of formal institutions and promoting the international competitiveness of firms in the wine industry.

Full Text:



ABDALLAH, F.; WADHWA, A. Collaborating with your rivals: identifying sources of coopetitive performance. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School, 2009.

ALSTON, L. J.; EGGERTSSON, T.; NORTH, D. C. Empirical studies in institutional change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

ANDERSON, E.; GATIGNON, H. Modes of foreign entry: a transaction cost analysis and propositions. Journal of International Business Studies, v. 17, n. 3, p. 1-26, 1986.

BARDIN, L. Análise de conteúdo. Lisboa: Edições 70, 2011.

BENGTSSON, M.; KOCK, S. Cooperation and competition in relationships between competitors in business networks. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, v. 14, n. 3, p. 178-194, 1999.

______. "Coopetition" in business networks – to cooperate and compete simultaneously. Industrial Marketing Management, v. 29, p. 411-426, 2000.

______. Coopetition – Quo vadis? Past accomplishments and future challenges. Industrial Marketing Management, v. 43, n. 2, p. 180-188, 2014.

BENGTSSON, M.; ERIKSSON, J.; WINCENT, J. Co-opetition dynamics – an outline for further inquiry. International Business Journal, v. 20, n. 2, p. 194-214, 2010.

BRANDENBURGER, A.M.; NALEBUFF, B.J. The right game: use game theory to shape strategy. Harvard Business Review, v. 73, n. 4, p. 57-71, 1995.

______. Co-opetition. Currency Doubleday, New York, 1996.

BRITO, C. M. Towards an institutional theory of the dynamics of industrial network. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, v. 16, n. 3, p. 150-166, 2001.

BROUTHERS, K.D. Institutional, cultural and transaction cost influences on entry mode choice and performance. Journal of International Business Studies, v. 33, n. 2, p. 203-221, 2002.

BROUTHERS, K.D.; BROUTHERS, L.E.; WILKINSON, T.J. Strategic alliances: choose your parents. Long Range Planning, v. 28, n. 3, p. 18-25, 1995.

BUCKLEY, P.; CASSON, M. C. The internalisation theory of the multinational enterprise: A review of the progress of a research agenda after 30 years. Journal of International Business Studies, v. 40, n. 9, p. 1563-1580, 2009.

CALIXTO, C. V.; MONTICELLI, J. M.; GARRIDO, I. L.; VASCONCELLOS, Silvio L. de. A influência da instituição na internacionalização das vinícolas no Brasil. Revista Eletrônica de Estratégia & Negócios, v. 5, p. 3-27, 2012.

CAVUSGIL, S. T.; KNIGHT, G.; RIESENBERG, J. R. Negócios internacionais: estratégia, gestão e novas realidades. São Paulo: Pearson, 2010.

CHEN, M. J. Reconceptualizing the competition-cooperation relationship; a transparadox perspective. Journal of Management Inquiry, v. 17, p. 288-304, 2008.

CHIAMBARETTO, P.; DUMEZ, H. Toward a typology of coopetition: a multilevel approach, International Studies of Management and Organization, v. 46, n. 3, p. 110-129, 2016.

CHIN, K.S.; CHAN, B.L.; LAM, P.K. Identifying and prioritizing critical success factors for coopetition strategy. Industrial Management & Data Systems, v. 108, n. 4, p. 437-454, 2008.

COLLIS, J.; HUSSEY, R. Pesquisa em administração. 2ª ed. Porto Alegre: Bookman, 2005.

CONTRACTOR, F.J. Contractual and cooperative forms of international business: towards a unified theory of model choice. Management International Review, v. 30, n. 1, p. 31-54, 1990.

DAHL, Johanna. Conceptualizing coopetition as a process: An outline of change in cooperative and competitive interaction. Industrial Marketing Management, v. 43, p. 272-279, 2014.

DELIGONUL, S.; ELG, U.; CAVUSGIL, E.; GHAURI, P. N. Developing strategic supplier networks: An institutional perspective. Journal of Business Research, v. 66, n. 4, p. 506-515, 2013.

DIMAGGIO, P.; POWELL, W. The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, v. 48, p. 147-160, 1983.

DOH, J.; RODRIGUES, S.; SAKA-HELMHOUT, A.; MAKHIJA, M. International business responses to institutional voids. Journal of International Business Studies, v. 48, n. 3, p. 293-307, 2017.

DUNNING, J.H. Toward an eclectic theory of international production: some empirical tests. Journal of International Business Studies, v. 11, n. 1, p. 12-23, 1980.

______. The eclectic paradigm of international production: a restatement and some possible extensions. Journal of International Business Studies, v. 19, n. 1, p. 1-31, 1988.

DUNNING, J.H.; LUNDAN, S.M. Multinational enterprises and the global economy. Cheltenham: Edwar Elgar, 2008.

______. The institutional origins of capabilities in multinational enterprises. Industrial and Corporate Change, v. 19, n. 4, p. 1225-1246, 2010.

ERIKSSON, P-E. Achieving suitable coopetition in buyer-supplier relationships: the case of AstraZeneca. Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, v. 15, n. 4, p. 425-454, 2008.

FARIAS, C.V.S. Inovação e ganhos competitivos na vitivinicultura gaúcha: uma abordagem preliminar. In: Anais do 6º Congresso do Instituto Franco-Brasileiro de Administração de Empresas. Franca, SP, Brasil, 2011.

FENSTERSEIFER, J.E. The emerging Brazilian wine industry: challenges and prospects for the Serra Gaúcha wine cluster. International Journal of Wine Business Research, v. 19, n. 3, 2007.

FLEURY, A.; FLEURY, M.T.L. Internacionalização das empresas brasileiras: em busca de uma abordagem teórica para os late movers. São Paulo: Atlas, 2007.

FLICK, U. Desenho da pesquisa qualitativa. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2009.

GAO, G.; MURRAY, J.; KOTABE, M.; JIANGYONG, L. A “strategy tripod” perspective on export behaviors: evidence from domestic and foreign firms based in an emerging economy, Journal of International Business Studies, v. 41, n. 3, p. 377-396, 2010.

GNYAWALI, D.R.; MADHAVAN, R. Cooperative Networks and Competitive Dynamics: a structural embeddedness perspective. Academy of Management Review, v. 26, n. 3, p. 431-445, 2001.

GNYAWALI, D.R.; JINYU, H.; MADHAVAN, R. Impact of co-opetition on firm competitive behavior: an empirical examination. Journal of management, v. 32, n. 4, p. 507-530, 2006.

______. Co-opetition. Promises and challenges. In: WANKEL, C. (Ed.). Management: A Reference Handbook. London: Sage Publications, p. 386-398, 2008.

GNYAWALI, D.R.; PARK, R. Co-opetition and technological innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises: A multilevel conceptual model. Journal of Small Business Management, v. 47, n. 3, p. 308-330, 2009.

GULATI, R.; NOHRIA, N.; ZAHEER, A. Strategic Networks. Strategic Management Journal, v. 21, n. 3, p. 203-215, 2000.

HALL, P. A.; SOSKICE, D. Varieties of capitalism: the institutional foundations of comparative advantage. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

HAMEL, G. Competition for competence and Inter-Partner Learning within International Strategic Alliances. Strategic Management Journal, v. 12, p. 83-103, 1991.

HITT, M. A.; IRELAND, R. D.; HOSKISSON, R. E. Administração Estratégica: competitividade e globalização. São Paulo: Pioneira Thomson Learning, 2008.

HOHENTHAL, J.; JOHANSON, J.; JOHANSON, M. Network knowledge and business-relationship value in the foreign market. International Business Review, v. 23, n. 1, p. 4-19, 2014.

HUNG, S-W.; CHANG, C-C. A co-opetition perspective of technology alliance governance modes. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, v. 24, n. 7, p. 679-696, 2012.

INSTITUTO BRASILEIRO DO VINHO (IBRAVIN). Ibravin. 2013. Available from: Accessed: 13 Oct. 2013.

JACOMETTI, M.; SANCHES, M.A.B.; GONÇALVES, S.A. Análise da estratégia pela perspectiva das teorias institucional e da estruturação. Revista Eletrônica de Estratégia & Negócios, Florianópolis, v. 6, n. 3, 2013.

JARILLO, J.C. On strategic networks. Strategic Management Journal, v. 9, n. 1, p. 31-41, 1988.

JOHANSON, J.; VAHLNE, J. The internationalization process of the firm: a model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments. Journal of International Business Studies, v. 8, n. 1, p. 23-32, 1977.

______. The mechanisms of internalization. International Marketing Review, v. 4, n. 7, p. 11-24, 1990.

______. The Uppsala internalization process model revisited: form liability of foreignness to liability of outsidership. Journal of International Business Studies. v. 40, p. 1411-1431, 2009.

JOHANSON, J.; WIEDERSHEIM-PAUL, F. the Internationalization of the Firm: Four Swedish Cases. Journal of Management Studies, v. 12, n. 3, p. 305-323, 1975.

KANTER, R.M. Collaborative Advantage: the art of alliances. Harvard Business Review, v. 72, n. 4, p. 96-108, 1994.

KHANNA, T.; GULATI, R.; NOHRIA, N. The dynamics of learning alliances: Competition, cooperation and relative scope. Strategic Management Journal, v. 19, n. 3, p. 193-210, 1998.

KHANNA, T.; KOGAN, J.; PALEPU, K. Globalization and similarities in corporate governance: a cross-country analysis, v. 88, p. 69-90, 2006.

LADO, A.A.; BOYD, N.G.; HANLON, S.C. Competition, Cooperation, and the Search for Economic Rents: a syncretic model. Academic of Management Review, v. 2, n. 1, p. 110-141, 1997.

LAWRENCE, T.B. Institutional strategy. Journal of Management, v. 25, n. 2, p. 161-188, 1999.

LUO, Y. Toward coopetition within a multinational enterprise: a perspective from foreign subsidiaries. Journal of World Business, v. 40, n. 1, p. 71-90, 2005.

LUO, X.; SLOTEGRAAF, R.J.; PAN, X. Cross-Functional "Coopetition": The simultaneous role of cooperation and competition within firms. Journal of Marketing, v. 70, n. 2, p. 67-80, 2006.

LUO, Y.; TUNG, R.L. International expansion of emerging market enterprises: A springboard perspective. Journal of International Business Studies, v. 38, p. 481-498, 2007.

MAIS, I.; AMAL, M. Instituições e internacionalização de empresas: proposição de um modelo. In: Encontro da Associação Nacional de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa em Administração (EnANPAD), 2009.

MONTICELLI, J.M.; CALIXTO, C.V.; GARRIDO, I.L. Competição, cooperação e coopetição: simetrias e discrepâncias na indústria vitivinícola do RS. In: VII Simpósio Internacional de Administração e Marketing. IX Congresso de Administração da ESPM, São Paulo, 2012.

NASH, J. The bargaining problem. Econometrica, p. 155-162, 1950.

NORTH, D.C. Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

NORTH, D.C. A Transaction Cost Theory of Politics. Journal of Theoretical Politics, p. 355-368, 1991.

ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALE DE LA VIGNE ET DU VIGN (OIV). Statistical Report on World Vitiviniculture 2012. 2012. Available from: Accessed: 15 Sept. 2013.

OSARENKHOE, A. A study of interfirm dynamics between competition and cooperation – A coopetition strategy. Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management, v. 17, n. 3-4, p. 201-221, 2010.

OVIATT, B. M.; MCDOUGALL, P. P. Toward a theory of international new ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, v. 25, n. 1, p. 45-64, 1994.

PADULA, G.; DAGNINO, G.B. Untangling the rise of coopetition. International Studies of Management & Organization, v. 37, n. 2, p. 32-52, 2007.

PENG, M. W. Towards an institution-based view of business strategy. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, v. 19, p. 251-267, 2002.

PENG, M.W.; KHOURY, T.A. Unbundling the institution-based view of international business strategy. In: RUGMAN, A. (Ed.). Oxford Handbook of International Business. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

PENG, M. W.; WANG, D.; JIANG, Y. An institution-based view of international business strategy: a focus on emerging economies. Journal of International Business Studies, v. 39, n. 5, p. 920-936, 2009.

PETRY, J.F.; BRIZOLLA, M.M.; HERCULANO, H. de A.; HEIN, N. Influência da internacionalização das empresas brasileiras na criação de valor. Revista Eletrônica de Estratégia & Negócios, Florianópolis, v.7, n.1, 2014.

PORTER, M. Competitive Advantage. New York: Free Press, 1985.

QUINTANA-GARCIA, C.; BENAVIDES-VELASCO, C.A. Cooperation, competition and innovative capability: A panel data of European dedicated biotechnology firms. Technovation, v. 24, n. 12, p. 927-938, 2004.

RICHARDSON, R.J. Pesquisa social: métodos e técnicas. São Paulo: Atlas, 1989.

RITALA, P.; TIDSTRÖM, A. Untangling the value-creation and value-appropriation elements of coopetition strategy: a longitudinal analysis on the firm and relational levels. Scandinavian Journal of Management, v. 30, n. 4, p. 498-515, 2014.

ROY, P.; YAMI, S. Managing strategic innovation through coopetition. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, v. 8, n. 1, 2009.

RUSKO, R. Mapping the perspectives of coopetition and technology-based strategic networks: A case of smartphones. Industrial Marketing Management, v. 43, n. 5, p. 801-812, 2014.

SCOTT, W. R. Institutions and organizations. London: Sage Publications, 1995.

STAKE, R. E. Case studies. In: DENZIN, N.; LINCOLN, Y. (Eds.). Strategies of qualitative inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1998.

TEECE, D.; PISANO, G. The dynamic capabilities of firms: an introduction. Industrial and Corporate Change, v. 3, n. 3, p. 537-556, 1994.

TOMASZEWSKI, M. Outsourcing and Innovative Activity of the Companies from the Visegrád Group. Chinese Business Review, 2014.

UNIÃO BRASILEIRA DE VITIVINICULTURA (UVIBRA). Uvibra. Available from: Accessed: 20 May 2014.

VAHLNE, J-E.; JOHANSON, J. The Uppsala model on evolution of the multinational business enterprise – from internalization to coordination of networks. International Marketing Review, v. 30, n. 3, p.189-210, 2013.

VANYUSHYN, V.; HOLMLUND, M.; KOCK, S. Cooperation with Competitors and Internationalization: Evidence from the West Coast of Finland. Journal of Euromarketing, v. 18, n. 2, p. 89-100, 2009.

VERNON, R. International investment and international trade in the product cycle. Quarterly Journal of Economics, p. 190-207, 1966.

VERNON, R. The international aspects of state-owned enterprises. Journal of International Business Studies, v. 10, n. 1, p. 7-14, 1979.

VERSCHOORE, J.R.S. (Org.) Redes de cooperação: uma nova organização de pequenas e médias empresas no Rio Grande do Sul. Porto Alegre: FEE, 2004.

VIEIRA, M.P.; MACHADO, D. del P.M. Isomorfismo institucional em universidades do sistema ACAFE – uma análise do curso de administração. Revista Eletrônica de Estratégia & Negócios, Florianópolis, v.5, n.3, p. 177-198, 2012.

VOLTOLINI, A. (Ed.) Revista Anuário Vinhos dos Brasil. Rio de Janeiro: Intergraf, 2013.

WINES OF BRASIL. Wines of Brasil. Available from: Accessed: 7 Aug. 2014.

YIN, R.K. Estudo de caso: planejamento e métodos. 4ª ed. Porto Alegre: Bookman, 2010.

ZEN, A.C.; DALMORO, M.; FENSTERSEIFER, J.E. O desenvolvimento de recursos em redes interorganizacionais e o processo de internacionalização: o caso Wines from Brazil. In: XXXIII Encontro da EnANPAD, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 2009.

ZEN, A.C.; FENSTERSEIFER, J.E.; PRÉVOT, F. Internationalization of clustered companies and the influence of resources: a case study of wine clusters in Brazil and France. Latin American Business Review, v. 12, p. 123-141, 2011.

ZEN, A.C.; DALMORO, M.; FENSTERSEIFER, J.E.O.; WEGNER, D. O desenvolvimento de recursos em redes interorganizacionais e o processo de internacionalização: o caso Wines of Brasil. Revista Ibero-Americana de Estratégia, v. 12, n. 1, p. 107-130, 2013.

ZINELDIN, M. Co-opetition: the organization of the future. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, v. 22, n. 7, p. 780-789, 2004.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Licença Creative Commons
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-CompartilhaIgual 4.0 Internacional.



Revista de Administração da UFSM. Brazilian Journal of Management

Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, eISSN 1983-4659