Universidade Federal de Santa Maria

Ci. e Nat., Santa Maria v.42, e7, 2020

DOI:10.5902/2179460X41129

ISSN 2179-460X

Received 23/09/19   Accepted: 05/04/20  Published:11/05/20

 

 

Chemistry

 

The Importance of the Rescue and Preservation of Medicinal Plants in the North region in the last twenty years

A Importância do Resgate e da Preservação de Plantas Medicinais na Região Norte nos últimos vinte anos

 

Renato Abreu LimaI

Reinato Andrade Tembo XavierII

Felipe Sant’ Anna CavalcanteIII

 

I   Departamento de Ciências: Biologia e Química, Instituto de Educação, Agricultura e Ambiente, Universidade Federal do Amazonas (IEAA/UFAM), Humaitá, Amazonas, Brasil - renatoal@ufam.edu.br

II  Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Ambientais, Instituto de Educação, Agricultura e Ambiente, Universidade Federal do Amazonas (PPGCA/IEAA/UFAM), Humaitá, Amazonas, Brasil - reinatoxavier2@gmail.com

III Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Ambientais, Instituto de Educação, Agricultura e Ambiente, Universidade Federal do Amazonas (PPGCA/IEAA/UFAM), Humaitá, Amazonas, Brasil - felipesantana.cavalcante@gmail.com

 

 

ABSTRACT

The objective of this research was to survey published works on medicinal plants in the North Region, analyzing their use and preparation. Given its importance for human beings as well as for other living beings, the preservation of this precious asset on our planet Earth is very pertinent. The method for this study was quantitative, based on works published in the period from 1999 to 2019 with an emphasis on medicinal plants used in the treatment and cure of diseases. Visits to the communities, in the work under study, were analyzed for consultations in the region in order to improve capacities and data on medicinal plants. We found that the most used vegetable species were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Rutaceae, Poaceae, Acanthaceae, Allismataceae, Amarantaceae, Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Meliaceae, Musaceae, Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Bromeliaceae, Cactaceae, Araceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Aristolochiaceae and others. Other records were people planting medicinal plants, collecting plant seeds, are used to make infusions to treat toothache, cough, flu, diarrhea and skin diseases.

Keywords: Conservation; Sustainable development; Medicinal plants; Amazon

 

RESUMO

O objetivo desta pesquisa foi fazer o levantamento de trabalhos publicados sobre as plantas medicinais na Região Norte, analisando o seu uso e preparação. Dada sua importância para os seres humanos como também para outros seres vivos, é deveras pertinente à preservação deste bem precioso no nosso planeta Terra. O método para este estudo foi quantitativo, baseado em trabalhos publicados no período de 1999 a 2019 com ênfase nas plantas medicinais utilizadas no tratamento e cura das doenças. Foram analisadas as visitas às comunidades, apresentadas nos trabalhos em estudo, para consultas na região de modo a apurar os dados melhores e mais confiáveis sobre as plantas medicinais. Constatou-se que as espécies vegetais usadas com maior frequência foram as das famílias Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Rutaceae, Poaceae, Acanthaceae, Allismataceae, Amarantaceae, Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Meliaceae, Musaceae, Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Bromeliaceae, Cactaceae, Araceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Aristolochiaceae e outras. Outro fato observado foi que os moradores criam hortas de plantas medicinais, recolhem sementes de plantas, usam folhas fazendo infusão principalmente para tratar tosse, gripe, diarreias e pele.

Palavras-chaves: Conservação; Desenvolvimento sustentável; Plantas medicinais; Amazonas

 

 

1 INTRODUCTION

Reflection on human practices in society is necessary to make a contribution and thus avoid the permanent destruction of the environment and its ecosystem, however, necessarily involves an articulation with the production of meanings about environmental education. Plants have played a significant role in conserving the health of living species, including humans, who use them for social, moral well-being, relieving themselves from diseases, used as animal feed, gas supplies (the precious oxygen) (MACIEL et al. 2001; SOARES et al. 2015). The plants mitigate the incident light rays that have been plaguing the vast regions of our continent and in particular our country, prevent erosion caused by the rage of rainwater, that is to say has an economic, social and ecological importance.

The registration of traditional knowledge is indispensable, since information about the empirical use of plants is under threat of disappearance. In addition to this fact, the risk of disappearance is another factor that can occur for the decrease of some plant species in order to be used in the treatment and cure of diseases (DUTRA, 2009). Indeed, the various species of medicinal plants in the region are at risk of disappearing from the unsustainable use practiced by the popular for various purposes, be they economic, social, medicinal, commercial, industrial, transportation and many others.

Given that the region has not yet been devastated by anthropological action, it is pertinent that according to researchers: it is possible to plan the occupation and use of its soil, seeking to reconcile the use of natural resources and the conservation of biodiversity, thus ensuring the continuity of the forest with all its richness (VICENTINI, 2001). Before programming any action, man must implicitly plan his activity to predict the possible consequences that may arise from it contemplating the intervening elements such as forest, soil and animals that cohabit in the ecosystem.

Brazil is a country that houses people from various continents and each with its own tradition of dealing with the environment, contrasting the traditions of the country's indigenous people. In recent years, the major concern of peoples is to undertake migrations by becoming interested in the Amazon Region with numerous biodiversity where many products of sociodiversity and human interest are found (SANTOS et al. 2018).

Currently, there is a concern by the rulers of the country for the rescue of the typical cultural tradition of the people of Brazil with the introduction of Ethnobotanical studies to maintain and contribute to the improvement of medicinal plants in a sustainable way that contribute to the treatment of various diseases, thus maintaining the human health (CARNEIRO et al. 2010).

In this context, Ethnobotany is the discipline that can help to find answers to the various problems of forest use and use based on the assumption that the community has information about plants and their medicinal use, since each community has its own habits and customs in the treatment and use of plants (VEIGA; SCUDELLER, 2015; SALES et al. 2015).

In recent years, we have seen great growth in teaching and research in ethnobiology and ethnoecology in all regions of Brazil. The number of publications launched is a reflection of this movement and, due to a feedback effect, ends up driving new research projects with this focus. In the Northern Region, it has been no different. However, the region has a relatively larger dimension and less concentration of specialists. These factors end up creating a scenario of scarcity of research projects in an environment with high biological and cultural diversity such as the Amazon (HAVERROTH, 2018).

From this study, it can be seen that medicinal plants are the guarantor of life in the northern region of Brazil because the population uses them to treat diseases. Thus, the main objective of the research was to survey a variety of known medicinal plants most commonly used to treat diseases in the northern region of Brazil by reading various scientific articles published in official journals in the country.

 

 

2 MATERIAL AND METHODS

In order to achieve the objectives and obtain the expected results, the bibliographic survey of scientific articles dedicated to the study of medicinal plants in the Northern Region of Brazil, were analyzed based on the indexing of the researches carried out in the Scolar Scholar Database, Scielo, PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Capes and Plataforma Sucupira, most relevant documents in the treatment of ethnobotany and medicinal plants, especially by authors who analyze the issue of recovery of deforested areas. The following combinations of keywords were used: medicinal plants, ethnobotanical and northern region. For that, a reading was done in the titles and abstracts in order to verify if they fit the inclusion criteria.

This method consisted in the selection and consultation of several articles published between 1999 and 2019. Thus, articles published in the last 20 years were analyzed. Included in the analysis were articles on Ethnobotany and medicinal plants, the form of preparation and their application for the treatment and relief of diseases or symptoms. The analyzes were carried out in a quantitative way, since there were many plants cited by respondents of both sexes that treat various diseases, and plants that treat headaches were excluded because they are common to all diseases.

 

 

3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

We verified 78 scientific works published in scientific journals (articles, dissertations, theses, monographs) of these 37 articles were analyzed as shown in table 1. The authors make an in-depth study of Ethnobotany and natural and exotic medicinal plants, recognizing the need for ecological systems to be the supports for the sustainability of life on planet Earth and to be threatened by the inappropriate or excessive use of human practice in the interaction between human beings versus nature.

The number of publications launched is a reflection of this movement and, due to a feedback effect, ends up driving new research projects with this focus. In the Northern Region, the focus of this article, it has been no different. However, the region has a relatively larger dimension and less concentration of specialists. These factors end up creating a scenario of scarcity of research projects in an environment with high biological and cultural diversity such as the Amazon (HAVERROTH, 2018).

According to the readings of the articles, they confer that Ethnobotany is a very old science, only it was not known as science and the populations practiced without the current designation, that is, it was a practice of empirical knowledge taught by adults to new new generations (ALBUQUERQUE, 2006).

 

Table 1 - Research and publications on ethnobotany in medicinal plants in the North region

Authors

Year of Publication

Title

Periodical

Subject

Place of Collection

Conclusions / Final Considerations

Luz, Francisco Joaci de Freitas

2001

Medicinal plants of popular use in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil

Brazilian Horticulture

Medicinal

RR

This combination of different species in the spectrum of medicinal plants of popular use in Boa Vista follows the diversity of habits and culture of people with different origins, with implications on the richness and potential use of popular knowledge in the cure of health problems.

Pinto, Angélica Auxiliadora da Costa; Maduro, Cice Batalha

2003

Products and sub-products the popular medicine commercializedin Boa Vista city, Roraima

Amazon Act

Medicinal

RR

Medicinal products of popular origin can become an alternative to sustainable development in the State of Roraima, if conducted in a responsible manner and mainly benefiting the traditional populations that hold most of the knowledge acquired.

Alárcon, Juan Gabriel Soler

2005

Floristic and ethnobotanical survey in one hectare of terra firme forest in the Middle Rio Negro region, Roraima, Brazil

Economic Botany

Medicinal

RR

The species with the highest use value was Bertholletia excelsa. Arecaceae, Lecythidaceae, and Sapotaceae showed a wide variety of uses. The uses were grouped into eight categories; those with the highest use values were firewood, technology, and construction.

Santos, Maria Aparecida Corrêa dos; Ferreira, Márlia Coelho

2005

Inventory of medicinal plant species employed by IEPA, Macapá-AP

Amazon: Science and Development

Medicinal

AP

The results of this research are important, as they indicate that, for the production of more significant information about inventory, it is necessary to expand the inventory areas, making a greater coverage of the State, and to determine, more precisely, the demand for vegetable raw material.

Santos, Maurício Reginaldo Alves dos; Lima, Maria Railda

2006

Ethnobotanical Aspects of Popular Medicine in the Municipality of Buritis, Rondônia

Fitos Magazine

Medicinal

RO

The rescue of popular knowledge carried out in this study shows that, despite the richness of Amazonian biodiversity, popular medicine is predominantly based on exotic plants, from other regions of Brazil or even from other countries. Thus, it is also evident the importance of studying medicinal flora, mainly Amazonian, in an integrated, multidisciplinary way.

Pereira, Luciano Araújo; Lima e Silva, Raullyan Borja; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Almeida, Mara Zélia; Monteiro, Eugenia Del Carmen Quilodrán; Sobrinho, Felipe de Araújo Pinto.

2007

Medicinal plants of a quilombola community in the Eastern Amazon: Utilitarian aspects of Piperaceae and Solanaceae species

Brazilian Journal of Agroecology

Medicinal

AM

In general, the studied community showed a deep knowledge regarding the use and cultivation of the studied ethnospecies. Studies such as these are of paramount importance for the conservation and sustainable (medicinal) use of plant resources.

Santos, Maurício Reginaldo Alves dos; Lima, Maria Railda de; Ferreira, Maria das Graças Rodrigues

2008

Use of medicinal plants by the population of Ariquemes in Rondônia

Brazilian Horticulture

Medicinal

RO

The study of the ethnobotanical knowledge of communities predominantly focused on the primary sector generally leads us to two aspects: the first is the observation of the strategies that humans use to deal with nature, trying to improve their quality of life in some way and; The second is the poignant need to protect ancestral knowledge by retrieving and recording information so as to perpetuate it for future generations. This research will provide support for the phytochemical and pharmacological studies needed to confirm the therapeutic properties of most species studied and to verify their toxicity or harmlessness to human health.

Santos, Maurício Reginaldo Alves dos; Lima, Maria Railda de;

2008

Vegetal resources survey used as phytotherapics in Cujubim city, Rondônia, Brasil

Scientific knowledge

Medicinal

RO

The work highlighted the need to preserve popular knowledge, as well as its wealth and dispersion. Only by systematizing this knowledge will we be able to take advantage of its full potential, either as a basis for scientific research or in the basic procedures of attention to human health.

Nascimento, André Rosalvo Terra

2009

Palm Wealth and Ethnobotany in the Territory
Krahô Indigenous People, Tocantins, Brazil

Forest

 

Ethnobiology

TO

Strategies involving the management and conservation of natural populations should be based on in situ conservation programs, which urgently require species surveys.

Carneiro, Diogo Borges; Barboza, Myrian Sá Leitão; Menezes, Moirah Paula

2010

Useful native plants in the Extractive Reserve Fisherman's Village
Caeté-Taperaçu Navy, Pará, Brazil

Botanical Act Brasilia

Medicinal

PA

The residents of the village of Pescadores preferably use the plant resources located on the outskirts of the village. Twenty native species of mangrove and restinga are used, which are basically used for medical, food and technology purposes. Restinga species are used primarily in the food and medicinal categories.

Lima, Renato Abreu; Magalhães, Sandra Aparecida; Santos, Maurício Reginaldo Alves

2011

Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants Used in the City of Vilhena, Rondônia

Research & Creation Magazine

Medicinal

RO

Several researches on the use of plants in therapeutic treatments have been carried out.

Siviero, Amauri; Delunardo, Thiago Andrés; Haverroth, Moacir; Oliveira, Luis Cláudio de; Mendonça, Ângela Maria Silva

2011

Cultivation of food species in urban gardens in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil

Brazilian Botanical Acta

Medicinal

AC

The quantity of species correlated positively in the home gardens. Food plants cultivated in Rio Branco gardens conserve agrobiodiversity and aid in the health and well-being of the residents by improving the landscape, ambience and leisure space of the city.

Martins, Williane Maria de Oliveira; Martins, Lilliane Maria de Oliveira; Paiva, Fabiano Silveira; Martins, Wilton José de Oliveira; Lima-Júnior, Sebastião Ferreira

2012

Agrobiodiversity in backyards and riverside gardens in the Boca do Môa-Acre community

Biothemes

Biodiversity

AC

The rural cutover lands present many species at the same area, and manioc is the main product cultivated. The backyards have spatial arrangements of food species, with emphasis on fruits and vegetables, besides medicinal plants. Thus, both the backyards and rural cutover lands participate in the subsistence and income of riparian families from this community.

Siviero, Amauri; Delunardo, Thiago Andrés; Haverroth, Moacir; Oliveira, Luis Claúdio; Mendonça, Angela Maria Silva.

2012

Medicinal plants in urban backyards in Rio Branco, Acre

Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants

Medicinal

AC

The cultivation of medicinal plants in urban backyards in Rio Branco helps to combat diseases and promotes ex situ conservation of agroforestry agrobiodiversity, well-being for residents by improving the landscape, microclimate ambience and leisure space.

Martins, Williane Maria de Oliveira; Paiva, Fabiano Silveira; Bantel, Carlos Adolfo

2013

Traditional knowledge of plants in the medical use of the valley microregion Juruá, Acre, Brazil

Brazilian Encyclopedia

Medicinal

AC

It is concluded that the use of plant species used by the root workers in the city of Cruzeiro do Sul is diversified. Phytotherapy in the researched region is conserved, maintaining the identity with the local ethno-knowledge.

Tomchinsky, Bernardo;

Ming, Lin Chau; Kinuppi, Valdely Ferreira; Hidalgo, Ari de Freitas, Chaves, Francisco Célio Maia

2013

Ethnobotanical study of antimalarial plants in the middle region of the Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil

Amazon Act

Biodiversity

AM

The knowledge of the use of antimalarial plants is well developed in communities of the Barcelos municipality at the middle Negro River, where the incidence of malaria is still high. We report 55 plants used to treat malaria infection, among them 16 species that had not been previously mentioned in other publications as antimalarial.

Almeida, Larissa Santos de; Gama, João Ricardo Vasconcellos; Oliveira, Francisco de Assis; Ferreira, Maria do Socorro Gonçalves; Menezes, Antônio José Elias Amorim de; Gonçalves, Danielly Caroline Miléo

2013

Use of Flora Species in the Santo Antônio Rural Community, BR-163, Brazilian Amazon, Forest and Environment

Forest and Environment

Ethnobotany

AM

Information gained from ethnobotany tools can: contribute to participatory planning for future community-level activities; promote the creation of participatory conservation programs; and subsidize the choice of species to be protected or have their production potentialized for income generation.

Santos, Maurício Reginaldo Alves dos; Lima, Maria Railda; Oliveira, Carla Liegi Lonardoni Gomes de

2014

Medicinal plants used in Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil

Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants

Medicinal

RO

The relatively small number of native Amazon species identified can be the result of the loss of knowledge about medicinal plants in the Amazon because of internal migration, extinction of local indigenous groups, increasing urbanization and consequent globalization of the lifestyles

Vásquez, Silvia Patrícia Flores; Mendonça, Maria Silvia de; Noda, Sandra do Nascimento

2014

Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in riverside communities of Manacapuru Municipality, Amazonas, Brazil

Amazon Act

Biodiversity

AM

The research showed that the residents of the communities still have knowledge and make use of medicinal plants as one of the ways to treat their most frequent diseases, such as stomach pain, cough, flu, fever, headache, using mainly the leaves in the drug preparations.

Cajaiba, Reinaldo Lucas; Silva, Wully Barreto da; Sousa, Diogo Nascimento de; Sousa, Alex Soares de

2015

 

 

Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants
commercialized in the municipality of Uruará, Pará, Brazil

Biothemes

Medicinal

PA

Finally, this work generated knowledge about the collection of medicinal plants used in the municipality.

Carmo, Taiane Novaes do; Lucas, Flávia Cristina Araújo; Lobato, Gerciane de Jesus Miranda; Gurgel, Ely Simone Cajueiro

2015

Medicinal and ritualistic plants sold at the 25 de Setembro fair, Belém, Pará

Brazilian Encyclopedia

Medicinal

PA

The socio-cultural and vegetal diversity that exists in fairs in the Amazon region allows us to understand the plots of knowledge, built through the trade and ethno-knowledge of marketers and consumers about the therapeutic herbs that cure and purify.

Lima, Renato Abreu; Pires, Laiza Sabrina dos Santos; Vieira, Natan Gonçalves

2015

Environmental education and the use of medicinal plants used by the population of union district Bandeirante-Rondônia

Electronic Journal on Management, Education and Environmental Technology

Medicinal

RO

The study demonstrated that medicinal plants are of great importance and often the only alternative for the population, as it is part of the daily life of the community. In this way, research and work in environmental education that involve knowledge related to
medicinal plants have the possibility of promoting significant reconnections and triggering more effective socio-environmental transformations, establishing a rational relationship between the use of plants and curing diseases.

Veiga, Josephina Barata; Scudeller, Veridiana Vizoni.

2015

Ethnobotany and folk medicine in the treatment of malaria and associated diseases in the Julião - lower Rio Negro river community (Central Amazon)

Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants

Medicinal

AM

Given these results, it is clear that the residents of the community of Julião have satisfactory knowledge about medicinal plants, especially those used to treat malaria and its diseases. However, due to their proximity to the state capital and the possibility of faster and more effective treatment for malaria, they only use these plants to treat the consequences of the disease.

Coelho, Diana Lopes; Brandão, Eliel Guimarães; Rosas, Lisandra Vieira; Pinto, Márcia Nascimento; Pantoja, Tatyanna Mariucha Araújo; Lima, Renato Abreu

2016

The medical plant use in fighting parasitosis and intestinal worms good neighborhood in the garden in the municipality Benjamin Constant-AM, Brazil

South American Journal of Basic Education, Technical and Technological

Medicinal

AM

The use of medicinal plants is part of the popular culture of the neighborhood, which are used for the benefit of health, both to assist in relief and for the healing of disease or infirmity, among which are inserted into the parasites and worms intestinal that were the focus of this research. Surveys of ethnobotanical knowledge promote the rescue of knowledge that is often unknown to much of the population, which is involved with the technological world of today.

Santos-Silva, Jéssica Paloma Gama dos; Oliveira, Patrícia Chaves de

2016

Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in the community of Várzea Igarapé do Costa, Santarém-Pará, Brazil

Environment and Sustainability

Medicinal

PA

Riverside communities are a rich repository of knowledge, the relationship between man and the river, the fauna and flora of the ecosystem reveals the importance of conducting ethnobotanical research with this type of community, with a view to bringing returns for themselves and for the community world population.

Barreto, Ingrid Ferreira; Freitas, Alessandra Doce Dias

2017

Ethnobotany in agroforestry yards in the Barreiras community in Almeirim-PA

Amazon Business and Administration Magazine

Medicinal

PA

The properties of the Barreiras Community have a great diversity of plants, this floristic richness is the result of the presence of species typical of the region and others that, although they were brought from other places, have been cultivated for a long time. In addition to diversity, plants have multiple uses, since they contribute to the health, food and well-being of the community. The most representative ethnobotanical category was that of food plants and the most used parts were fruits, and this is due to the fact that the plants are grown mainly to complement food in the family unit.

Lima, Rodrigo Gonçalves de; Silva, Renato Barboz da; Lima, Helledsen Ramos da Silva de Lima

2017

Ethnobotanical survey in the surroundings of Adolpho Ducke Botanical Garden, Manaus, Amazonas

Scientia Amazonia

Medicinal

AM

The dwellers in the surroundings of the JBAD have diversified knowledge and use plants (62 species), their main uses are food and medicinal, fruit species are more abundant than medicinal. There is no dependence on fruit production or medicine for survival.

Pereira, Maria das Graças da Silva; Coelho-Ferreira, Márlia

2017

Use and diversity of medicinal plants in a quilombola community in the Eastern Amazon, Abaetetuba, Pará

Amazon Biota

Medicinal

PA

It is expected that the registration and documentation of ethnobotanical knowledge related to traditional medicine in Tauerá-Açú, will be understood by this quilombola community, as a contribution to the preservation of collective memory and the valorization of traditional medicine within the community.

Leandro, Yuri Arlindo da Silva; Jardim, Iselino Nogueira;

Gavilanes, Manuel Losada

2017

Use of Medicinal Plants in the Health Care of Settlement Residents in Anapu Municipality, Pará, Brazil

Biodiversity

Medicinal

PA

PDS-JV community respondents reported the use of 46 ethnospecies for medicinal purposes. Native and tree species were the most cited for the preparation of medicines, which may be evidence of the influence of the approximation of residences with the forest.

Tomchinsky, Bernardo; Ming, Lin Chau; Kinupp, Valdely Ferreira; Hidalgo, Ari de Freitas; Chaves, Francisco Célio Maia

2017

Ethnobotanical study of antimalarial plants in the middle region of the Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil

Amazonica Act

Medicinal

AM

The middle Rio Negro region is an interesting place to seek novel antimalarial compounds because of the traditional knowledge of the Amazon population in conjunction with the high biodiversity of the region. Many factors could be involved with the use of antimalarial plants by the Barcelos population, such as the accessibility of these medicinal plants, efficiency and safety of using these plants, the accessibility to drugs or other medical treatments, plant bitterness, and the gender of the interviewees. Our results indicate that the population of Barcelos possesses an extensive knowledge on the use of a diverse array of antimalarial plants, and may contribute to the development of novel antimalarial compounds.

Santos, Jéssica Juliane Furtado; Coelho-Ferreira, Márlia; Lima, Pedro Glecio Costa

2018

Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in public markets in the Metropolitan Region of Belém do Pará, Brazil

Amazon Biota

Medicinal

PA

Among the resources that were sold, leaves and bark predominate, and trees and herbs were the most expressive life forms. The public markets of the Belém Metropolitan Region have one of the richest pharmacopoeias in the Amazon, playing an important role in the chain of commercialization of native and exotic medicinal plants, whose supply base depends on herbalists in Belém, islands around this region, local middleman and of other regions of Brazil.

Barbosa, Cristiano de Souza; Scudeller, Veridiana Vizoni; Ferreira, Sidney Alberto do Nascimento; Bonatto, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Pinto, Ernesto Oliveira Serra

2019

Medicinal plants grown in backyards in the neighborhood of São Raimundo, in the city of Manaus, AM

Revista Terceira Margem Amazônia

Medicinal

AM

The medicinal plant diversity found in urban backyards in the São Raimundo neighborhood demonstrates that residents have a high level of knowledge about medicinal plants in their backyards, mainly due to the alternative use of home remedies. Although Manaus is a city along the lines of globalization, there were several uses for plants in the studied neighborhood, demonstrating an identity of local knowledge in the ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants, which deserve attention and good family farming management practices for remain in the urban environment.

Batista, Lídia Patrícia Amim; Brandão, Elias Guimarães; Rosas, Lisandra Vieira; Pinto, Márcia Nascimento; Pantoja, Tatyanna Mariúcha Araújo; Araújo, Tales Vinicíus Marinho; Lima, Renato Abreu.

2019

Survey of medicinal plants used against intestinal parasites and worms in the municipality of Atalaia do Norte-AM

Amazon Biota

Medicinal

AM

It is concluded that this research was of great importance since, through this, the interviewed residents had the possibility to apply their acquired knowledge, and thus leave a legacy for future generations informing the population about diseases of great importance in public health.

Carvalho, Dayanne de Souza; Lima, Renato Abreu; Querino, Carlos Alexandre Santos; Campos, Milton César Costa; Lima, Janaína Paolucci Sales de.

2019

 

Ethnobotany and Use of Plants with Therapeutic Potential in Brazilian Rural Settlements

Environmental Education in Action

Medicinal

AM

 

The number of publications regarding studies on medicinal plants in the Amazon region has increased, which indicates the increased interest in these plant species, while having relevance to social, economic, environmental and cultural aspects.

Maia, Marcos Felipe Gonçalves; Giovannini, Baldur Rocha; Viana, Rodney Haulien Oliveira; Ferreira, Gecilane

2019

Breaking Babassu coconut to raise children, dress and puto n shoes: Ethnobotany whit Margarida and Maria at Bico do Papagaio, Tocantins, Brazil

Ethnoscientia

Medicinal

TO

We identified a diversity of uses of the plant under analysis, as well as different meanings. For the two women interviewed here, being “Quebradeira de Coco” is more than in profession, it is a sense of existence. They demonstrate a perception of changes in the environment and the importance of work in their lives and that of their families. They also highlight the difficulties and sufferings experienced in this work process of more than five decades, breaking coconut to raise children, dress, build houses and eat.

Oliveira, Rodrigo Leonardo Costa de; Almeida, Luís Felipe Paes de; Durigan, Maria Fernanda Berlingieri; Scudeller, Veridiana Vizoni; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

2019

Traditional knowledge and uses of Copaíba by the Makuxi Darora community in the savannah of Roraima

Gaia Scientia

Medicinal

RR

Copaifera L. species, popularly known as copaíba, have their oil-resin used in traditional indigenous medicine. Copaiba (Copaifera pubiflora) is used for different purposes in the medicinal (47% of citations), food (7.5%), and mainly those related to wood use (construction, 33%, fuel, 7.5% and technology), 5%) in the community.

Oliveira, Rodrigo Leonardo Costa de; Brito, Sérgio Oliveira de; Almeida, Luís Felipe Paes de; Scudeller, Veridiana Vizoni; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

2019

Use and extractivism of Angico in na indigenous community in the Roraima savannah, northern Brazilian Amazon

 

Environment: Management and Development

Medicinal

RR

Angico is a tree present in the Brazilian phytogeographical domains of the Atlantic Forest, Caatinga, Cerrado and Amazonia. In the northern region of Brazil there are records in the Amazonas, Pará, Acre and the savannah region of Roraima state. This

species is used by the indigenous communities for several purposes, among them the medicinal use of the bark and mainly in the construction and fuel with the use of the stem. Statistical analysis indicated that the extraction of angico is related to the timber use of the species.

 

As we can see in the table above, Amazonas and Pará are the two states that most present scientific articles published in the last twenty years in the area of medicinal plants and ethnobotany. This is perhaps due to the fact that these two states have a larger territorial area when compared to other states in the North region and this allows scientific studies to be carried out. Another interesting factor is that most of the journals that published these articles are from Federal Universities in the North region.

In ethnobotanical studies from several Brazilian regions, the majority of informants are women, probably because they are more closely linked to family care (LIMA; MAGALHÃES; SANTOS, 2011). No different in the northern region, considering the important role of women in society, he takes care of the family, takes care of the home and takes care of the children in all ways, thus having a great knowledge of ethnobotanical practices.

Based on the research of the articles, it was found that many scientific articles used semi-structured questionnaires to obtain information about medicinal plants from informants such as healers and midwives (OLIVEIRA et al. 2010). And this is an important factor because it contributed to the inclusion of data from articles, related to medicinal plants in the North Region, available on the Sucupira Platform (NETO; MORAIS, 2003).

The academic history of ethnobotany is mixed with the history of botany and other areas of study in the natural and social sciences, especially anthropology (OLIVEIRA et al. 2009). The study of ethnobotany can not only be confused with the social sciences, in its area of ​​knowledge it has a lot to do with interdisciplinarity which include so many disciplines interconnected with medicine, genetics, ecology, chemistry, which emerged times but that its study and deepening was later referenced.

These sciences drive community socio-economic development and popular participation through their sustainable actions and practices in order to create ecosystem balance, thus keeping the forest intact. According to Vásquez et al. (2014) states that leaf resource availability may be indicative of the high utilization value compared to other parts of the plant, as flowers, fruits and seeds are not available at all times of the year. Indeed, the leaf according to the nature of the plants, it remains for a long time in the plant which is why it is most often used, has a concentration of organic matter and organic substances that can be used to treat diseases such as gastritis, cough, diarrhea, dandruff, anti-inflammatory, infusion skin treatment, a preparation consisting of putting the leaves in the boiled water and then drowning the pan for about 5 or even 10 minutes and taking it in tea form, this is because the leaves and roots should not be boiled.

Medicinal plants are those used in the preparation of medicines. From tea leaves to species cultivated by large pharmaceutical companies for the production of industrialized medicines, they are considered medicinal plants. Due to its great importance, since the 70's, the World Health Organization - WHO has been stimulating the development of medicines with plants (ALMEIDA, 2015).

Due to the lack of population and the prohibitive cost of conventional medicines, which is very high, combining the distances between medical centers and hospitals, the community uses the home remedies available to them and treat your illnesses immediately. According to Lima; Magalhães; Santos (2011), considers the low quality of life of the population and their limited access to local public health programs, making it necessary for them to seek resources for cure or alleviation of diseases, the use of medicinal plants, thus contributing to the recovery of knowledge traditional.

And as a way of encouraging the population to preserve their culture and tradition, which values popular production practices, the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of emerging diseases in different ethnic groups must be implemented in different public health, education and culture policies so that so everyone can consciously use, rescue and preserve these vegetables.

It is a principle and duty of all citizens to protect vegetation in a rational and sustainable way in order to maintain the environmental balance on planet Earth. The environmental dimension is increasingly becoming an issue that, in principle, involves a set of actors from the educational universe, enhancing the engagement of various knowledge systems, the training of environmental professionals and the university community in an interdisciplinary perspective, to address of education for the environment.

Other medicines prepared with medicinal plants have the cheapest cost - herbal medicines - in these the active ingredient is added to other substances of the plant itself, in the form of extract. Who encourages the development of these products, especially in countries where the cost of medicines is very high and rich in biodiversity, as is the case in Brazil (ALMEIDA, 2015). Indeed, the form of production and preparation of medicines through medicinal plants has been a simpler, viable and easily accessible process, using plant organs such as leaves, bark, flowers, fruits and roots by taking advantage of the active ingredient or chemicals they possess.

At the end of the 1970s, the WHO established the Traditional Medicine Program, which recommends that Member States develop public policies to facilitate the integration of traditional medicine and alternative complementary medicine into national health care systems, as well as to promote rational use of this integration. Although modern medicine is well developed in most parts of the world, WHO recognizes that a large part of the population of developing countries depends on traditional medicine for their primary care, as 80% of this population uses traditional practices in their primary care 85% of these use plants or preparations (BRAZIL, 2008).

As a whole, the study of medicinal plants has become an imperative need for society because of the many advantages they have in curing the diseases of the popular. Man is a natural being who sometimes puts himself in the place of being unnatural, because of his attitudes and is endowed with sociocultural and scientific knowledge capable of panicking nature and conserving it in order to make it a harmonious space for him leisure and socializing. In the wild, there are a variety of useful medicinal plant species that are in danger of disappearing as they are being used unsustainably by man. The Northern Region of Brazil, is not an exception, uses medicinal plants taking advantage of their chemical healing potential and for their food. Some forms of obtaining medicinal plant species marketed in the region, most of them were cultivated in backyards or vegetable gardens (CAJAIBA et al. 2016).

Given the availability of the forest to meet the needs that man has, it is necessary to do it in a more sustainable way (BORBA; MACEDO, 2006) mention that, in case of interest in the commercialization of these plants, they must be cultivated organically, with care especially for the appearance of the morphological aspect, since the Brazilian culture was seriously influenced by this mixture of ethnicities, mixing with the existing knowledge in the country.

The free markets are places of great flow of population and diversified merchandise, historically important places, that were created with the purpose of commercialization of the agricultural products, important place of supply of the amazonense families in inputs, vegetables, dairy products and diverse range of other products that allow for economic stability and improved life (VARGAS et al. 2013).

In each state in the Northern Region, we can find professors and researchers or research centers that work with an ethno-ecological focus. The main institutions are still the Federal Universities, INPA, MPEG, IEPA (Institute of Scientific and Technological Research of the State of Amapá) and Embrapa Units in the North Region. In these institutions, several research and development projects have been carried out, especially with traditional and indigenous peoples (HAVERROTH, 2018).

In Brazil, there are about 65 registered research groups on Ethnobotany/Plant medicinal in the Amazon, of which seven are in the North Region, Amazonas (AM) in Manaus, Roraima (RR) in Boa Vista, Amapá (AP) in Macapá, Pará (PA) in Belém, Tocantins (TO) in Palmas, Rondônia (RO) in Porto Velho and Acre (AC) in Rio Branco, whose common objective is to grow the country and society in general in Science, Technology and Innovation. Table 2 shows the medicinal plants most mentioned in the 37 scientific works belonging to that region.

In addition, the emergence of ethnobotanical collections in Brazil is recent, having identified four collections of this nature in the country that already constitute as material and immaterial heritage of the institutions to which they are linked and these guarantee future generations the possibility of benefits from the proper use and informed of plant diversity, providing greater study opportunities for the North region (OLIVEIRA-MELO et al. 2019).

Medicinal plants, as well as their uses and indications, are part of the knowledge of Amazonian populations (indigenous and non-indigenous). In the state of Amazonas, medicinal plants are grown in fields, beds, around houses and rural communities and have been sold in open markets and popular markets. The use of medicinal species, most often native to your region, or grown in backyards, can reduce spending on synthetic medicines. This is an aspect that may also be causing the practice of crops in the Amazon region (MERA et al. 2018).

Lima; Pires; Vieira (2014) in their study on medicinal plants and environmental education, affirms that the exchange of knowledge and the appreciation of local culture are fundamental elements that enable practices connected with socio-environmental sustainability. Because the presence of the residents allows the workshops to integrate people and nature. In this way, research and work in environmental education that involve the knowledge related to medicinal plants have the possibility of promoting significant reconnections and triggering more effective socioenvironmental transformations, establishing a rational relationship between the use of plants and the cure of diseases.

Plants are traditionally used by several indigenous communities, with medicinal potential, generating knowledge about their use. Thus, Rocha and Marisco (2016), when conducting a survey of ethnobotanical studies in indigenous communities in Brazil, found that the Northeast region is the one with the highest number of studies, in contrast with the North region of the country, where few studies were carried out performed. The indigenous communities are distributed throughout the Brazilian territory (BRASIL, 2020) with a population number in the North of 305.873 and the Northeast with 208.691 (BRAZIL, 2012). Therefore, based on this distribution, differences can be seen in relation to the number of indigenous people versus the number of ethnobotanical studies in these regions.

 

Table 2 - Shows the most cited plant species by the authors, their families, common names, parts used, preparation and indications for diseases curable by medicinal plants.

Family / Scientific Name

Common name

Used part

Preparation

Recommendation

Acanthaceae

Justicia calycina L.

Ampicilina

Leaf, stem

Tea, bath

Inflammation, stomach ache, liver

Justicia pectoralis Jacq

Mutuquinha

Leaf

Tea

Bleeding, headache, earache, cough

Adoxaceae

Sambucus nigra L.

Sabugueiro

Leaf

Tea, juice and shower

Measles, chicken pox, dengue

Allismataceae

Echinodorus sp.

Chapéu-de-couro

Leaf

Tea

Cholesterol, diabetes

Amaranthaceae

Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze

Terramicina

Leaf

Tea

Fever, headache, stomach ache

Alternanthera cf. brasiliana (L.) Kuntze

Penicilina

Leaf

 

Tea

Anti-inflammatory

Alternanthera sp.

 

Anador

Leaf

Tea

Headache, fever

Beta vulgaris L.

 

Beterraba

Root

Juice

Anemia

 

Chenopodium ambrosioides L.

Mastruz

Leaf

Juice, syrup and tea

Worm, flu, cough, stomach ache

Gomphrena globosa L.

 

Gonfrena

Leaf

 

Tea

 

Hemorrhoid

Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen

Ginseng-brasileiro

Leaf

Juice

Disclaimer

Amaryllidaceae

Allium cepa L.

Cebola

Stalk

Maceration

Cough, prostate

Allium sativum L.

 

Cebola-roxa

Stalk

Tea, shower and syrup

Flu, cough, high blood pressure, stomachache and headache

Allium fistulosium L.

 

Cebolinha

Leaf

 

Tea

 

Baby stomach ache

Allium schoenoprasum L.

Cebolinha-francesa

Stalk

Maceration

Insomnia

Anacardiaceae

Anacardium occidentale L.

 

Caju

Leaf, bark and fruits

Tea, shower and syrup

Diarrhea, malaria, wounds, stomach ache

Anacardium sp

Cajui

Bark

Maceration

Infection, gastritis

Mangifera indica L.

Manga

Leaf

Tea, shower and syrup

Cough, sinusitis, stomach ache

Spondias mombim L.

Caja

Bark

Tea and maceration

Gastritis, neatness, anti-inflammatory, wash disease

Spondias spp

Aroeira

Leaf and bark

Tea, juice and maceration

Inflammation, ulcer, kidneys, uterus

Annonaceae

Annona mucosa (Jacq.) Baill.

Biriba

Leaf

Shower

Louse

Annona muricata L.

Graviola

Leaf and stalk

Tea

Inflammation, swelling of pregnant woman, food that is bad, gastritis

Apiaceae

Coriandrum sativum L.

Coentro

Seeds

Juice

Hoarseness

Eryngium foetidum L.

Chicoria

Leaf and root

Tea and syrup

Flu, diarrhea, stomach ache

Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss

Tomilho

Leaf

Tea

Poor circulation, headache, soothing

Apocynaceae

Aspidosperma excelsum Benth

 

Carapauba

 

Leaf and bark

Tea and maceration

Inflammation, diabetes, liver, high blood pressure, malaria, wounds, birth control

Couma sp

Sorva

Bark

Tea

Hernia Pains

Geissospermum sp.

Quina quina

Leaf and bark

 

Tea

Malaria

Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce ex Mull. Arg.) Woodson

Sucuba

 

Bark

Tea and shower

Women's bath, stomach pain and urine

Araceae

Caladium sp

Tinhorão

Leaf

Tea

Shower

Arecaceae

Euterpe precatoria Mart.

Açaí

Root and fruits

Tea and juice

Anemia, malaria, hepatitis, kidneys, liver

Aristolochiaceae

Aristolochia trilobata L.

 

Angelicó

Leaf

Tea

Fever, gastritis, stomach and head pain, vomiting

Aristolochia fimbriata Cham. & Schltdl.

Papo-de-peru

Leaf

Tea

Body softness, laziness

Asteraceae

Acmella oleracea (L.) RK. Jansen

Jambu

Leaf and flowers

Tea ande syrup

Flu, sore throat tuberculosis

Artemisia vulgaris L.

Artemísia

Leaf

Tea

Malaria, Kidneys, Liver

Bidens cynapifolia Kunth

Picão preto

Leaf and root

Tea

Malaria, Kidneys, Liver

Centratherum punctatum Cass

Perpétua-roxa

Leaf

Juice

Snake bite

Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl

Japana-roxa

Leaf

Tea and syrup

Diarrhea, cough, tufted belly, urine and headaches.

Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.bip. ex Walp..

Boldo-africano

Leaf

Tea and juice

Snake bite

Pectis brevipedunculata (Gardner) Sch. Bip.

Chá-de-moça

Root

Tea

Diarrhea, cough, tufted belly, urine and headaches.

Pluchea sagitalis (Lam) Cabrera

Macela

Leaf

Tea and shower

Fever, headache and stomach

Tagetes erecta L.

Cravo-de-defunto

Leaf and flowers

Tea, shower and maceration

Sinusitis, child sickness, bleeding

Bignoniaceae

Fridericia chica (Bonpl.) .G. Lohmann

Crajiru

Leaf

Tea, shower and juice

Inflammation, avoid child, anemia, healing

Crescentia cujete L.

Cuieira

Leaf, fruits

Tea and shower

Diabetes, Dog Flea

Mansoa alliacea (Lam.) A. H. Gentry

Cipó-alho

Leaf

Tea and shower

Flu, bath, cough, anemia, amoeba, headache

Bixaceae

Bixa orellana L.

Urucum

Seeds

Tea

Snake bite

Boraginaceae

Heliotropium indicum L.

Cravo-de-urubu

Leaf

Juice

Infection

Symphytum officinale L.

Confrei

Leaf

Tea and topical use

Cancer, Anemia, Diabetes Scar

Brassicaceae

Brassica oleracea L.

Repolho

Leaf

Tea and juice

Gastritis, Cholesterol, Diabetes, Scar

Brassica sp.

Mostarda

Leaf

Tea

Child disease

Bromeliaceae

Ananas comosus (L.) Merril

 

Abacaxizeiro

 

Bark and fruits

Tea and syrup

 

Flu, kidney stone

Cactaceae

Pereskia grandifolia Haw

Rosa-madeira

Leaf

Tea

Stomach ache, red

Opuntia sp.

Figo-do-diabo

Leaf

Topical use

Bone fracture

Caricaceae

Carica papaya L.

Mamão

Leaf and flowers

Tea

Worm, liver fat, stomach ache

Caryophyllaceae

Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex Roem.& Schult

Jaraquicaá

Leaf

Tea

Shower

Celastraceae

Maytenus spp.

Xixua

Bark

Maceration

Rheumatism, cervix, hernia

Clusiaceae

Clusia nigrolineata P.F. Stevens

Apui

Leaf

Topical use

Chest pain

Combetaceae

Terminalia catappa L.

Castanholeira

Leaf

Topical use

Cholesterol

Convolvulaceae

Bonamia ferruginea (Choisy) Hallier f.

Cipó-tuíra

Leaf and bark

Tea and maceration

Malaria, liver, hepatitis, gastritis

Ipomoea batata L.

Batata

Root

Juice

Gastritis

Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq.

Algodão-bravo

Root

Maceration

Blemish on the skin, mycosis, pain caused by amoebae

Costaceae

Costus cf. spicatus (Jacq.) Sw.

Cana-de-macaco

Leaf

Tea

Kidneys, liver, hepatitis, gastritis

Crassulaceae

Kalanchoe pinnata (Jacq.) Sw.

Corama

Leaf

Tea, syrup, juice and topical use

Swelling, sinusitis, tumor, gastritis

Lauraceae

Persea americana Mill.

Abacate

Leaf, seeds

Tea and maceration

Anemia, sinusitis, cough, hepatitis

Malvaceae

Gossypium barbadense L.

 

Algodão

Leaf, seeds

Tea, shower and juice

Inflammation, pneumonia, colic, cough, woman's cleanliness, gastritis

Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

Vinagreira

Leaf

Tea

Sore throat

Malva sp.

Malva

Leaf

Tea

Cough

Melastomataceae

Bellucia grossularioides (L.) Triana

Araça

Bark

Tea

Gastritis

Meliaceae

Carapa guianensis Aubl.

Andiroba

Bark and fruits

Tea, topical use and syrup

Flu, cough, stroke, fever, diarrhea, antibiotic

Musaceae

Musa acuminata L.

 

Banana-maça

 

Fruits

 

Topical use

 

Angry wound

Musa paradisiaca L.

Banana-pacová

Fruits

Topical use

Angry wound

Musa sp

Banana-baié

Fruits

Shower

Water belly

Myrtaceae

Eucalyptus sp.

Eucalipto

Leaf

Tea

Diarrhea, flu, sore throat

Eugenia uniflora L.

Pitanga

Leaf

Tea

High pressure

Psidium guajava L.

Goiaba

Leaf, bark and fruits

Tea

Diarrhea, colic, stomach pain

Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.

Cravo-da-índia

Bark and fruits

Tea and maceration

Cough, diarrhea, stomach ache, amoeba

Poaceae

Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf

Capim santo

Leaf and root

Tea, shower and juice

Soothing, Hair Loss, Stomachache, and Urine

Saccharum officinarum L.

Cana-de-açúcaar

Leaf

Tea

Insomnia

Zea mays L.

Milho

Leaf

Tea

Measles

 

It was noticed that in the last ten years (2009-2019) the publications of ethnobotany in periodicals grew exponentially in relation to the period from 1999 to 2009. In this sense, research in the area of phytochemistry was of great importance in this scenario, since different parts of the plants can be collected and analyzed chemically for the presence or absence of secondary metabolites and active ingredients that they have aiming at the biotechnological potential of these medicinal plants.

Since the sustainable development of a country depends essentially on a consistent policy of education, science, technology and innovation, based on the preservation of nature, biodiversity and the rational exploration of natural sources necessary for food, social and economic advancement, in a scenario that ensures the maintenance of health and the cure of diseases (FILHO, 2010).

After all, the importance of phytochemical studies in the Amazon is highlighted for the knowledge of plant species through detailed analyzes and studies and observing the metabolic degree that each species presents, knowing its phytochemical properties collaborating with the advancement of scientific studies and providing in a positive way the use of medicinal plants and their therapeutic properties to treat diseases and the search for efficacy and safety in the handling of these studied species (CASTRO; PINTO; LIMA, 2019).

 

 

4 FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

Based on the analyzed articles, the research showed that the authors of the published articles are more objective when they show the concern to include ethnobotany and the study of medicinal plants in the northern region of Brazil, as a way of valuing the somewhat touching cultural heritage for the preservation of the forest in its environment. It should be noted that the northern communities still have knowledge and make use of medicinal plants as one of the ways to minimize the suffering they are experiencing to treat their most frequent diseases.

Besides that, knowledge of medicinal plants has been passed down from generation to generation through grandparents, parents, uncles and other knowledgeable older people as their acquisition is easily accessible. People do not have the financial means to buy conventional medicines to treat the primary diseases they suffer because they are very expensive and are far from health centers or medical facilities. Consideration should be given at the time of implementation and use of the natural resource of medicinal plants in the community to sustainably exploit this forest resource so that other generations can enjoy their usefulness to the health of the wider community.

From this study, it can be seen that medicinal plants are used in the northern region of Brazil because the population uses them for the treatment or relief of diseases or symptoms. Thus, the main objective of the research was to survey a variety of known medicinal plants in the northern region of Brazil through a literature review.

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

To the Federal University of Amazonas, the CAPES funding agency, for the technical, intellectual and financial support provided to us and the entire team of teachers who assisted us and contributed to the research work.

 

 

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Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.