Graywater reuse: case study of the efficiency of two types of intermittent sand filters in the treatment of synthetic gray water

Taís Carolina de Oliveira Alcântara, Emerson Renato Maciel da Silva, Caio César Barbosa de Siqueira, Laryssa Barbosa Fernandes, Philip Terrence McCreanor, Ivan Carlos da Costa Barbosa


Water is a renewable and limited resource, however its potability is an essential factor, since the increase of population in a disorderly way linked to the indiscriminate use of such a resource has posed a threat to the quality of it. In order to find simple, sustainable and low-cost solutions, several countries, such as the United States, Japan and some
European countries, have been studying viable ways to treat different types of effluents, especially the domestic ones, gaining visibility for gray water reuse. This work was realized in the United States, Macon - GA, and aimed to create two groups of intermittent sand filters in order to analyze their efficiency in the treatment of synthetic gray water,
evaluating the chemical parameters of BOD and COD, and from the results verify the feasibility for non-potable urban reuse and encouraging, through the results, a promising type of study to be carried out in Brazil. The study presented satisfactory results regarding the analyzed chemical aspects, acting in the reduction of BOD and COD with
efficiency above 90% for group 1 and above 80% for group 2, besides having effluent filters with mean values of BOD accordance with the legislation envisaged by the USEPA.


Sustainability; Intermittent filtration; Treatment grey water; Chemical parameters


ABNT; Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas. NBR 13.969 - Tanques sépticos: unidades de tratamento complementar e disposição final dos efluentes líquidos, projeto, construção e operação. Rio de Janeiro (Brasil): ABNT; 1997.

ABNT; Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas. NBR 15.527 - Água de chuva, aproveitamento de coberturas em áreas urbanas para fins não potáveis. Rio de Janeiro (Brasil): ABNT; 2007.

ALLEN L, CHRISTIAN-SMITH J, PALANIAPPAN M. Overview of greywater reuse: the potential of greywater systems to aid sustainable water management [Internet]. Califórnia: Pacific Institute; 2010 [cited 2017 Feb 15]. Available from:

BOLLER M. Filter mechanisms in roughing filters. IRC Supporting water sanitation and hygiene services for life [Internet]. 1993 Jan 01. Available from:

BRUURSEMA T. The new NDF 350 and 350-1. Plumbing Systems & Design [Internet]. 2011 Oct [cited 2017 Feb 15]. Available from:

CARVALHO NL, HENTZ P, SILVA JM, BARCELLOS AL. Reutilização de águas residuárias. Revista do Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas. 2014;14(2): 3164-3171.

CHIN WH, RODDICK FA, HARRIS JL. Greywater treatment by UVC/H2O2. Water Research. 2009;43(16):3940– 3947.

DULTRA FA. Aplicação da filtração intermitente em leito de areia e de escória da metalurgia do cobre no tratamento de esgotos com ênfase em reuso [dissertation]. Salvador: Escola Politécnica/UFBA; 2017. 150 p.

GONÇALVES RF. Gerenciamento de águas cinzas. In: Gonçalves RF, editor. Uso Racional das Águas em Edificações. Rio de Janeiro: ABES; 2006. p. 153-222.

JEFFERSON B, LAINE A, PARSONS S, STEPHERSON T, JUDD S. Technologies for domestic wastewater recycling. Urban Water. 1999;1(4):285-292.

MORELLI EB. Reuso de água na lavagem de veículos [dissertation]. São Paulo: Escola Politécnica/USP; 2005. 107 p.

RESOLUÇÃO N. 54 DE 28 DE NOVEMBRO DE 2005. Estabelece modalidades, diretrizes e critérios gerais para a prática de reuso direito não potável de água, e dá outras providências. Diário Oficial da União (Brasília). 2017 Nov 19.

SABBAH I, GHATTAS B, HAYEEK A, OMARI J, HAJ Y, ADMON S, GREEN M. Intermittent sand filtration for wastewater treatment in rural areas of the Middel East – a pilot study. Water Science and Technology. 2003;48(11–12):147–152.

SODAMADE G, LONGE E, SANGODOYIN A. Depth and performance evaluation of a laboratory scale sand filtration system for wastewater treatment. Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences. 2015;38(2):209-216.

TERPSTRA PMJ. 1999. Sustainable water usage systems: models for the sustainable utilization of domestic water in urban areas. Water Sci. Technol. 1999;39(5): 65–72.

UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (USEPA): Guidelines for water reuse. U.S. Washington (EUA): Environmental Protection Agency, 2012. 643 p.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Ciência e Natura

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.